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Rose Rosa

Other Common Name(s):

Phonetic Spelling
RO-zuh
Description

Roses are woody, deciduous, perennial shrubs or vines in the rose family (Rosaceae). They are native to the temperate and subtropical Northern Hemisphere, including North America Europe, and Asia, and grow 1 to 8 feet tall and 2 to 6 feet wide depending upon the cultivar, species, or hybrid, of which there are a great many. There are roses that climb (ramblers or climbers), spread, or stand upright. 

Roses require full sun and organically rich, well-drained, acidic to neutral soils. Roses are heat and frost tolerant. Deadhead the blooms as they fade but stop at summer’s end so the plants can start their hardening process before winter. Allowing some fruits to form is beneficial to wildlife, as many birds and small mammals feed on rose hips. Most roses require yearly pruning in late winter. Look here for a guide to pruning roses and here for general cultural information. Grafting is the best propagation strategy.  

Roses have flower parts in multiples of five. The sharp structures on the stems are prickles, not true thorns, and they can vary in size and abundance from species to species. 

Hybrid Tea Roses are generally grown for their large, fragrant, solitary blooms. Floribunda roses bear clusters of small flowers; miniature roses bear small flowers on dwarf plants. Grow roses in cottage or cutting gardens, or use them at the back of a border. Using larger, pricklier species as hedges can provide some security. Climbing roses can accentuate vertical spaces in the landscape. Miniature roses work well in containers. More fragrant selections do well to be situated near a patio or walkway where their scent can be enjoyed. Rose hips can be used to make jellies, jams, and tea.  

Quick ID Hints:

  • Flower parts are in multiples of five (for example, sepals, petals, stamen, and pistils)

  • Stems usually have prickles

  • Leaves are alternate and margins are serrate

  • Flowers in shades of red, orange, yellow, pink, purple, or white

  • Flowers are often fragrant

  • Fruits are called hips (but the true fruits are the hard achenes inside the hips)

Insects, Diseases, and Other Plant Problems: Fuller rose beetles, Japanese beetles, rose chafer, rose thrips, southern red mites, and two spotted mites are pest problems for roses. Disease problems include botrytis, blights, powdery mildew, leaf spots, and anthracnose.

The Clemson Cooperative Extension Home and Garden Information Center has a factsheet on common rose diseases as well as a factsheet on insects and other related pests.

VIDEO Created by Elizabeth Meyer for "Trees, Shrubs and Conifers" a plant identification course offered in partnership with Longwood Gardens.

Profile Video:
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Cultivars / Varieties:
'Abraham Darby', 'Alain Blanchard', 'America', 'AUSbloom', 'AUSblush', 'AUSboard', 'AUSca', 'AUScat', 'AUShero', 'AUSlea', 'AUSleap' SWEET JULIET®, 'AUSlilac', 'AUSman', 'AUSmary', 'AUSmas', 'AUSperd', 'AUSreef', 'AUSrush', 'AUStamora', 'AUSwalker', 'Autumn Sunset', 'Awakening', 'Beauty Secret', 'Belinda's Dream', 'Belle de Baltimore', 'Belle de Londres', 'Belle Poitevine', 'BENblack', 'Bloomfield Courage', 'Bobbie James', 'BRlace', 'BUCbi', 'Cecile Brunner', 'Celestial', 'Champlain', 'Champney's Pink Cluster', 'Chevy Chase', 'CHEWily', 'ChewPatout', 'Christine Wright', 'City of York', 'Climbing Pinkie', 'Cornelia', 'Country Dancer', 'Dainty Bess', 'DELmur', ‘Desdemona’, 'DEVrudi', 'Don Juan', 'Dortmund', 'Dr. W. van Fleet', 'Easy Going', 'Echo', 'Excelsa', 'Fantin-Latour', 'Felicite Parmentier Alba', 'F. J. Grootendorst', 'F. K. Druschki', 'Flower Carpet Appleblossom', 'Flower Carpet Red', 'Frau Dagmar Hastrup', 'Golden Showers', 'Golden Wings', 'Great Maiden's Blush', 'Green Ice', 'Gros Choux d' Hollande, 'Hansa', 'HARquantum', 'HARwanted', 'Henry Hudson', 'Hermosa', 'Inspiration', 'INTerdust', 'INTerlada', 'INTerlav', 'Ispahan', 'JACarch', 'JACbow', 'JAChal', 'JACiraps', 'JAClover', 'JACpoy', 'JACpursh', 'JACsimpl', 'JACsnow', 'Jeanne Lajoie', 'John Davis', 'Joseph's Coat', 'Judy Fischer', 'Juno', 'Katherine Morley', 'KORconta', 'KORfullwind', 'KORgoas', 'KORtemma', 'KORturek', 'KORwest', 'Lady of Shalott', 'Lawrence Johnston', 'Leda', 'Loving Touch', 'MACcarpe', 'MACdub', 'MACha', 'Madame Hardy', 'Madame Isaac Pereire', 'Mary Wallace', 'Meg', 'Meizeli', 'MELbarke', 'MELbonrib', 'MELcoublan', 'MELcupag', 'MELdomonac', 'MELdrifora', 'MELgali', 'MELgekanu', 'Mellmera', 'MELmodac', 'MELmont', 'MELpitac', 'MElpotal', 'MELpsidue', 'MELtonie', 'Mermaid', 'MOORcap', 'MOORcar', 'MORpapplay', 'MORten', 'Mundi', 'Mutabilis', 'Navada', 'Nearly Wild', 'New Dawn', 'NOAla', 'NOAschnee', 'Nympenberg', 'Old Blush', 'Orange Honey', 'Paul Neyron', 'Penelope', 'Pink Grootendoorst', 'POULbero', 'POULclimb', 'POULnoz', 'Prosperity', 'Purple Pavement', 'Radral', 'Radtreasure', 'Red Fountain', 'Rene Andre', 'Rhonda', 'Robin Hood', Rosa hybrida 'Radrazz' PP #11836, Rosa x centifolia, Rosa x 'Fortuniena', Rosa x 'Meiviolin' (Eden Climber® Rose), 'Royal Sunset', 'Salet', 'Sally Holmes', 'SAVabeg', 'SAVachild', 'SAVahowdy', 'SAValife', 'Seafoam', 'Silver Moon', 'Sombreuil', 'Souvenir de la Malmaison', 'SPIcup', 'TANbeedee', 'TANprik', 'Tess of the d'Urbervilles', 'The Fairy', 'The Garland', 'The Generous Gardener', 'Thelma', 'Therese Bugnet', 'TWOadvance', 'Vanity', 'WEKamanda', 'WEKcatlart', 'WEKcifrabaun', 'WEKdykstra', 'WEKroalt', 'WEKstephitsu', 'WEKvossutono', 'WEKzazette', 'WEOpop', 'Wollerton Old Hall', 'Yesterday', 'Zephirine Drouhin'
Tags:
#showy flowers#fragrant flowers#heat tolerant#rose#tsc#cottage garden#security plant#high maintenance#prickly#rose shrub#English garden#cutting garden#border back#walkway planting#tsc-s#bee friendly#container plant#patio#hedge#cpp
 
Cultivars / Varieties:
'Abraham Darby', 'Alain Blanchard', 'America', 'AUSbloom', 'AUSblush', 'AUSboard', 'AUSca', 'AUScat', 'AUShero', 'AUSlea', 'AUSleap' SWEET JULIET®, 'AUSlilac', 'AUSman', 'AUSmary', 'AUSmas', 'AUSperd', 'AUSreef', 'AUSrush', 'AUStamora', 'AUSwalker', 'Autumn Sunset', 'Awakening', 'Beauty Secret', 'Belinda's Dream', 'Belle de Baltimore', 'Belle de Londres', 'Belle Poitevine', 'BENblack', 'Bloomfield Courage', 'Bobbie James', 'BRlace', 'BUCbi', 'Cecile Brunner', 'Celestial', 'Champlain', 'Champney's Pink Cluster', 'Chevy Chase', 'CHEWily', 'ChewPatout', 'Christine Wright', 'City of York', 'Climbing Pinkie', 'Cornelia', 'Country Dancer', 'Dainty Bess', 'DELmur', ‘Desdemona’, 'DEVrudi', 'Don Juan', 'Dortmund', 'Dr. W. van Fleet', 'Easy Going', 'Echo', 'Excelsa', 'Fantin-Latour', 'Felicite Parmentier Alba', 'F. J. Grootendorst', 'F. K. Druschki', 'Flower Carpet Appleblossom', 'Flower Carpet Red', 'Frau Dagmar Hastrup', 'Golden Showers', 'Golden Wings', 'Great Maiden's Blush', 'Green Ice', 'Gros Choux d' Hollande, 'Hansa', 'HARquantum', 'HARwanted', 'Henry Hudson', 'Hermosa', 'Inspiration', 'INTerdust', 'INTerlada', 'INTerlav', 'Ispahan', 'JACarch', 'JACbow', 'JAChal', 'JACiraps', 'JAClover', 'JACpoy', 'JACpursh', 'JACsimpl', 'JACsnow', 'Jeanne Lajoie', 'John Davis', 'Joseph's Coat', 'Judy Fischer', 'Juno', 'Katherine Morley', 'KORconta', 'KORfullwind', 'KORgoas', 'KORtemma', 'KORturek', 'KORwest', 'Lady of Shalott', 'Lawrence Johnston', 'Leda', 'Loving Touch', 'MACcarpe', 'MACdub', 'MACha', 'Madame Hardy', 'Madame Isaac Pereire', 'Mary Wallace', 'Meg', 'Meizeli', 'MELbarke', 'MELbonrib', 'MELcoublan', 'MELcupag', 'MELdomonac', 'MELdrifora', 'MELgali', 'MELgekanu', 'Mellmera', 'MELmodac', 'MELmont', 'MELpitac', 'MElpotal', 'MELpsidue', 'MELtonie', 'Mermaid', 'MOORcap', 'MOORcar', 'MORpapplay', 'MORten', 'Mundi', 'Mutabilis', 'Navada', 'Nearly Wild', 'New Dawn', 'NOAla', 'NOAschnee', 'Nympenberg', 'Old Blush', 'Orange Honey', 'Paul Neyron', 'Penelope', 'Pink Grootendoorst', 'POULbero', 'POULclimb', 'POULnoz', 'Prosperity', 'Purple Pavement', 'Radral', 'Radtreasure', 'Red Fountain', 'Rene Andre', 'Rhonda', 'Robin Hood', Rosa hybrida 'Radrazz' PP #11836, Rosa x centifolia, Rosa x 'Fortuniena', Rosa x 'Meiviolin' (Eden Climber® Rose), 'Royal Sunset', 'Salet', 'Sally Holmes', 'SAVabeg', 'SAVachild', 'SAVahowdy', 'SAValife', 'Seafoam', 'Silver Moon', 'Sombreuil', 'Souvenir de la Malmaison', 'SPIcup', 'TANbeedee', 'TANprik', 'Tess of the d'Urbervilles', 'The Fairy', 'The Garland', 'The Generous Gardener', 'Thelma', 'Therese Bugnet', 'TWOadvance', 'Vanity', 'WEKamanda', 'WEKcatlart', 'WEKcifrabaun', 'WEKdykstra', 'WEKroalt', 'WEKstephitsu', 'WEKvossutono', 'WEKzazette', 'WEOpop', 'Wollerton Old Hall', 'Yesterday', 'Zephirine Drouhin'
Tags:
#showy flowers#fragrant flowers#heat tolerant#rose#tsc#cottage garden#security plant#high maintenance#prickly#rose shrub#English garden#cutting garden#border back#walkway planting#tsc-s#bee friendly#container plant#patio#hedge#cpp
  • Attributes:
    Genus:
    Rosa
    Family:
    Rosaceae
    Life Cycle:
    Perennial
    Woody
    Recommended Propagation Strategy:
    Grafting
    Country Or Region Of Origin:
    Temp. & Subtropical Northern Hemisphere (such as Europe & Asia)
    Wildlife Value:
    Wildlife is attracted to the edible hips. Single-flowered species and cultivars are attractive to bees.
    Particularly Resistant To (Insects/Diseases/Other Problems):
    heat and frost
    Edibility:
    The fruit (called the hip) is edible.
    Dimensions:
    Height: 1 ft. 0 in. - 8 ft. 0 in.
    Width: 1 ft. 0 in. - 6 ft. 0 in.
  • Whole Plant Traits:
    Plant Type:
    Edible
    Ground Cover
    Perennial
    Rose
    Shrub
    Vine
    Woody Plant Leaf Characteristics:
    Deciduous
    Habit/Form:
    Climbing
    Erect
    Prostrate
    Spreading
    Growth Rate:
    Medium
    Maintenance:
    High
    Texture:
    Coarse
    Appendage:
    Prickles
  • Cultural Conditions:
    Light:
    Full sun (6 or more hours of direct sunlight a day)
    Soil Texture:
    Clay
    Loam (Silt)
    Soil pH:
    Acid (<6.0)
    Neutral (6.0-8.0)
    Available Space To Plant:
    Less than 12 inches
    12 inches-3 feet
    3 feet-6 feet
    6-feet-12 feet
    USDA Plant Hardiness Zone:
    5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b, 10a, 10b, 11a, 11b
  • Fruit:
    Fruit Color:
    Green
    Red/Burgundy
    Fruit Value To Gardener:
    Showy
    Display/Harvest Time:
    Fall
    Fruit Type:
    Achene
    Fruit Length:
    < 1 inch
    Fruit Width:
    < 1 inch
    Fruit Description:
    The accessory fruit is called a hip and forms after the flowers finish blooming. The hip will appear under the sepals of where the flower was after the flower dies. They will turn from green to red. They are filled with many achenes surrounded by irritating hairs.
  • Flowers:
    Flower Color:
    Cream/Tan
    Gold/Yellow
    Orange
    Pink
    Purple/Lavender
    Red/Burgundy
    Variegated
    White
    Flower Inflorescence:
    Solitary
    Flower Value To Gardener:
    Fragrant
    Good Cut
    Showy
    Flower Bloom Time:
    Summer
    Flower Shape:
    Cup
    Flower Petals:
    4-5 petals/rays
    7 - 20 petals/rays
    more than 20 petals/rays
    Flower Size:
    1-3 inches
    Flower Description:
    Flowers range in size, shape, color, and scent. Petal count can range from 5 petals (single-flowered) to many petals (double-flowered). Each has five, pointed sepals at the base.
  • Leaves:
    Woody Plant Leaf Characteristics:
    Deciduous
    Leaf Color:
    Green
    Deciduous Leaf Fall Color:
    Gold/Yellow
    Leaf Type:
    Compound (Pinnately , Bipinnately, Palmately)
    Leaf Arrangement:
    Alternate
    Leaf Shape:
    Ovate
    Leaf Margin:
    Serrate
    Hairs Present:
    No
    Leaf Length:
    1-3 inches
    Leaf Width:
    1-3 inches
    Leaf Description:
    This genus has pinnately compound leaves and an odd number (3-11) of leaflets. Some have stipules on the leaf stems.
  • Stem:
    Stem Color:
    Brown/Copper
    Green
    Stem Is Aromatic:
    No
    Stem Description:
    The stems are covered (to varying degrees) in prickles, which are commonly misunderstood as thorns.
  • Landscape:
    Landscape Location:
    Container
    Patio
    Walkways
    Landscape Theme:
    Cottage Garden
    Cutting Garden
    Edible Garden
    English Garden
    Fairy Garden
    Pollinator Garden
    Design Feature:
    Border
    Hedge
    Mass Planting
    Screen/Privacy
    Specimen
    Resistance To Challenges:
    Heat
    Problems:
    Problem for Children