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Hawthorn Crataegus marshallii

Other Common Name(s):

Phonetic Spelling
kree-TEE-gus mar-SHALL-ee-eye
Description

Crataegus, or Hawthorn, contains many species and varieties distributed across the southeastern United States and found in low swamps and river bottoms as well as higher mountain ridges. Crataegus marshallii, or Parsley hawthorn, is a small tree or shrub native to North Carolina. The decorative, finely-dissected leaves along with the dainty flowers, small red fruit, and beautiful bark all work together to make this one of the most ornamental of the hawthorns. The thorns can be a problem with children, but also provides protective nesting cover for songbirds. The tree grows to about 25 feet tall and 15 feet wide and can be found in moist areas of the Piedmont and coastal planes. It sometimes grows as a multitrunked shrub. 

Parsley Hawthorn grows in moist clay or sandy loams in full to partial sun. It is adaptable to garden soils. Use this tree in moist well-drained areas around ponds, streams, bogs or woodland sites.

This plant is categorized as Facultative (FAC) to Facultative wetland (FACW).

Diseases, Pests, and Other Plant Problems:

 

See this plant in the following landscape:
Cultivars / Varieties:
Tags:
#bees#hummingbirds#small tree#interesting bark#shrub#wildlife plant#moths#nectar plant#cover plant#winter interest#facultative#food source#NC native#tiny flowers#edible fruits#Braham Arboretum#larval host plant#food source fall#FACW#FAC#food source herbage#food source nectar#food source pollen#coastal FAC#Piedmont Mountains FAC#bird friendly#nectar plant late spring#mammals#food source soft mast fruit#butterfly friendly#nectar plant mid-spring#butterflies#pollinators#pollinator garden#non-toxic for horses#non-toxic for dogs#birds#non-toxic for cats#audubon#red-spotted purple butterfly#gray hairstreak butterfly#viceroy butterfly
 
Cultivars / Varieties:
Tags:
#bees#hummingbirds#small tree#interesting bark#shrub#wildlife plant#moths#nectar plant#cover plant#winter interest#facultative#food source#NC native#tiny flowers#edible fruits#Braham Arboretum#larval host plant#food source fall#FACW#FAC#food source herbage#food source nectar#food source pollen#coastal FAC#Piedmont Mountains FAC#bird friendly#nectar plant late spring#mammals#food source soft mast fruit#butterfly friendly#nectar plant mid-spring#butterflies#pollinators#pollinator garden#non-toxic for horses#non-toxic for dogs#birds#non-toxic for cats#audubon#red-spotted purple butterfly#gray hairstreak butterfly#viceroy butterfly
  • Attributes:
    Genus:
    Crataegus
    Species:
    marshallii
    Family:
    Rosaceae
    Uses (Ethnobotany):
    The leaves, berries, and flowers are used in medicines and herbals for cardiovascular health. The wood is strong, heavy, and hard, but has little commercial value.
    Life Cycle:
    Woody
    Country Or Region Of Origin:
    North America, NC
    Distribution:
    AL, AR, FL, GA, IL, KY, LA, MO, MS, NC, OK, SC, TN, TX, VA
    Wildlife Value:
    Important nectar flower for insects; food plant of many moths including the eggar moth; haws provide winter fruit for songbirds. It is a larval host plant for Gray Hairstreak (Strymon melinus), Red-spotted Purple (Limenitis arthemis astyanax), and Viceroy (Limenitis archippus). Red-spotted Purple and Viceroy rarely use this host plant in North Carolina. Good nesting habitat with thorns providing protection from predators.
    Play Value:
    Attracts Pollinators
    Wildlife Cover/Habitat
    Wildlife Food Source
    Particularly Resistant To (Insects/Diseases/Other Problems):
    Some heat tolerance.
  • Whole Plant Traits:
    Plant Type:
    Native Plant
    Shrub
    Tree
    Woody Plant Leaf Characteristics:
    Deciduous
    Habit/Form:
    Broad
    Erect
    Open
    Growth Rate:
    Medium
    Maintenance:
    Low
    Appendage:
    Thorns
  • Cultural Conditions:
    Light:
    Deep shade (Less than 2 hours to no direct sunlight)
    Full sun (6 or more hours of direct sunlight a day)
    Partial Shade (Direct sunlight only part of the day, 2-6 hours)
    Soil Texture:
    Clay
    Loam (Silt)
    Sand
    Soil pH:
    Acid (<6.0)
    Alkaline (>8.0)
    Neutral (6.0-8.0)
    Soil Drainage:
    Good Drainage
    Moist
    Occasional Flooding
    Occasionally Dry
    Occasionally Wet
    Available Space To Plant:
    12-24 feet
    NC Region:
    Coastal
    Piedmont
    USDA Plant Hardiness Zone:
    7b, 7a, 8b, 8a, 9b, 9a
  • Fruit:
    Fruit Color:
    Red/Burgundy
    Fruit Value To Gardener:
    Edible
    Display/Harvest Time:
    Fall
    Fruit Type:
    Pome
    Fruit Length:
    < 1 inch
    Fruit Width:
    < 1 inch
    Fruit Description:
    1/3 inch red pome with 1-5 pyrenes that resemble the “stones” in related plums, peaches, etc. Sometimes called the ‘haw’. Fruit displays from September to October.
  • Flowers:
    Flower Color:
    White
    Flower Inflorescence:
    Cyme
    Flower Value To Gardener:
    Showy
    Flower Bloom Time:
    Spring
    Flower Shape:
    Saucer
    Flower Petals:
    4-5 petals/rays
    Flower Size:
    < 1 inch
    Flower Description:
    One inch white flowers with red anthers appear in clusters from April to May.
  • Leaves:
    Woody Plant Leaf Characteristics:
    Deciduous
    Leaf Color:
    Green
    Deciduous Leaf Fall Color:
    Orange
    Red/Burgundy
    Leaf Type:
    Simple
    Leaf Arrangement:
    Alternate
    Leaf Shape:
    Ovate
    Leaf Margin:
    Lobed
    Serrate
    Hairs Present:
    No
    Leaf Length:
    < 1 inch
    Leaf Width:
    < 1 inch
    Leaf Description:
    The 1 inch ovate leaves have 5 to 7 short pointed lobes and serrated (or toothed) edges. They are shiny green on the upper surface and paler on the undersides. Spirally arranged on long shoots.
  • Bark:
    Bark Color:
    Dark Gray
    Light Gray
    Surface/Attachment:
    Exfoliating
    Bark Description:
    Thin and gray, becomes exfoliating with narrow scales with age.
  • Stem:
    Stem Color:
    Brown/Copper
    Gray/Silver
    Stem Is Aromatic:
    No
    Stem Description:
    Smooth, thin, thorny stems are gray with mottles of brown,
  • Landscape:
    Landscape Location:
    Pond
    Woodland
    Landscape Theme:
    Butterfly Garden
    Pollinator Garden
    Rain Garden
    Water Garden
    Winter Garden
    Design Feature:
    Flowering Tree
    Hedge
    Shade Tree
    Specimen
    Attracts:
    Butterflies
    Pollinators
    Small Mammals
    Songbirds
    Resistance To Challenges:
    Drought
    Wet Soil
    Wind