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Grape Vitis vinifera

Phonetic Spelling
VEE-tiss vih-NIFF-er-ah
Description

The common grape is native to Europe and Central Asia and is the kind of grape you are most likely to find in grocery stores.  It can be found growing along riverside and damp woods.  The leaves are superficially similar to fig (Ficus carica) but can be distinguished based on the plant form and presence of tendrils.

The flowers, leaves and fruit can be eaten.  A fully ripened fruit is delicious, being both sweet and juicy.  It can be concentrated and used as a sweetener.  An oil similar to sunflower oil is made from the seeds.  Sap from can be harvested in the spring and early summer and consumed as a drink.  Caution should be used though, as removing too much of the sap can weaken the plant.  The clusters of flowers can be used as a vegetable, the leaves are often used as a wrap, cooked then served. 

The plant should be grown in a location where it is protected from winter winds and frost.  A healthy plants needs good circulation.  To get the most out of this plant, support and training for the climbing structure should be provided.  A regular spraying and pruning routine should be followed.  The hot and humid summers of the southern states and the frigid cold in the midwest don't make this a good plant choice for the best fruit production.

Wines are also made from the fruits, as well as being dried as raisins or currants.  

Insects, Diseases, and Other Plant Problems:  This plant is particularly susceptible to radicole grape phylloxera.  This disease disrupt water and nutrient intake which results in loss of leaf surface area, yield reduction and total demise of the plant over a period of 4 to 7 years.  Other diseases include gray mold, crown gall, botrytis bunch rot, black rot, downy mildew and powdery mildew.  Insect problems can include mealy bugs, flea beetles, leaf hopper, leaf roller, Japanese beetle and grape berry moth.

 

VIDEO Created by Elisabeth Meyer for "Edibles, Bulbs, and Houseplants" a plant identification course offered in partnership with Longwood Gardens.   

Profile Video:
See this plant in the following landscape:
Cultivars / Varieties:
  • 'Rondo'
'Rondo'
Tags:
#vines#woody vine#edible fruits#fruit#ebh-fn
 
Cultivars / Varieties:
  • 'Rondo'
'Rondo'
Tags:
#vines#woody vine#edible fruits#fruit#ebh-fn
  • Attributes:
    Genus:
    Vitis
    Species:
    vinifera
    Family:
    Vitaceae
    Uses (Ethnobotany):
    Used in food and winemaking
    Life Cycle:
    Perennial
    Woody
    Recommended Propagation Strategy:
    Grafting
    Leaf Cutting
    Root Cutting
    Stem Cutting
    Country Or Region Of Origin:
    Mediterranean, Central Europe and southwestern Asia
    Play Value:
    Edible fruit
    Textural
    Climbing Method:
    Tendrils
    Edibility:
    Fruits edible raw, cooked, or dried to make raisins. Some cultivars are grown to be fermented and used to make wine and vinegar.
  • Whole Plant Traits:
    Plant Type:
    Edible
    Vine
    Woody Plant Leaf Characteristics:
    Deciduous
    Habit/Form:
    Climbing
    Maintenance:
    High
    Appendage:
    Tendrils
  • Cultural Conditions:
    Light:
    Full sun (6 or more hours of direct sunlight a day)
    Soil Texture:
    Clay
    Loam (Silt)
    Sand
    Soil pH:
    Acid (<6.0)
    Alkaline (>8.0)
    Neutral (6.0-8.0)
    Soil Drainage:
    Good Drainage
    Moist
    Occasionally Dry
    Available Space To Plant:
    6-feet-12 feet
    12-24 feet
    24-60 feet
    NC Region:
    Coastal
    Mountains
    Piedmont
    USDA Plant Hardiness Zone:
    6a, 6b, 7b, 7a, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b, 10b, 10a
  • Fruit:
    Fruit Color:
    Black
    Green
    Purple/Lavender
    Red/Burgundy
    Fruit Value To Gardener:
    Edible
    Showy
    Display/Harvest Time:
    Fall
    Fruit Type:
    Berry
    Fruit Length:
    < 1 inch
    Fruit Width:
    < 1 inch
    Fruit Description:
    Clusters of oval-shaped berries. Depending on the cultivar, they may be anywhere from green to red to deep purple in color. The skin surface has a glaucous coating. Some cultivars are bred to be seedless.
  • Flowers:
    Flower Color:
    Gold/Yellow
    Insignificant
    Flower Inflorescence:
    Panicle
    Flower Value To Gardener:
    Edible
    Fragrant
    Flower Bloom Time:
    Spring
    Flower Size:
    < 1 inch
    Flower Description:
    Numerous pendulous clusters of tiny non-showy flowers.
  • Leaves:
    Woody Plant Leaf Characteristics:
    Deciduous
    Leaf Color:
    Green
    Leaf Value To Gardener:
    Edible
    Leaf Type:
    Simple
    Leaf Arrangement:
    Opposite
    Leaf Shape:
    Ovate
    Leaf Margin:
    Dentate
    Lobed
    Hairs Present:
    Yes
    Leaf Length:
    3-6 inches
    Leaf Width:
    3-6 inches
    Leaf Description:
    Large palmately lobed leaves, 3-5 in long with defined teeth. Undersides may be slightly fuzzy. Tendrils at each node opposite the leaves.
  • Bark:
    Bark Color:
    Dark Brown
    Surface/Attachment:
    Peeling
    Bark Description:
    The flaky bark peels off in fibrous strips.
  • Stem:
    Stem Color:
    Green
    Stem Is Aromatic:
    No
    Stem Form:
    Zig Zags
    Stem Description:
    The beauty of the vine can be seen in winter, when leaves, fruit and blooms are absent. The growth habit make it an attractive addition to a winter garden.
  • Landscape:
    Landscape Location:
    Patio
    Vertical Spaces
    Landscape Theme:
    Edible Garden
    Winter Garden
    Design Feature:
    Barrier
    Border
    Screen/Privacy
    Specimen
    Problems:
    Frequent Disease Problems
    Frequent Insect Problems
    Messy