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Ilex cornuta

Common Name(s):

Description

Ilex cornuta is drought and heat tolerant. It makes a great small tree or hedge and can be severely pruned and easily transplanted. It can tolerate poor, clay and alkaline soils and has pest problems. It can become overgrown on small residential sites. 'Burford' is a very popular cultivar.

Quick ID Hints:

  • Spiny, coriaceous leaves.
  • Leaf apex spinose and pointing downward.
  • Lateral spines near leaf apex resemble bull horns.
Cultivars / Varieties:
  • 'Burford'
  • 'Carissa'
  • 'Dwarf Burford'
Tags:
#bees#white#evergreen#small tree#heat tolerant#drought tolerant#white flowers#shrub#wildlife plant#honey bees#nectar plant#hedges#specialized bees#chinese#pollinator plant#fantz
 
Cultivars / Varieties:
  • 'Burford'
  • 'Carissa'
  • 'Dwarf Burford'
Tags:
#bees#white#evergreen#small tree#heat tolerant#drought tolerant#white flowers#shrub#wildlife plant#honey bees#nectar plant#hedges#specialized bees#chinese#pollinator plant#fantz
  • Attributes:
    Genus:
    Ilex
    Species:
    cornuta
    Family:
    Aquifoliaceae
    Life Cycle:
    Woody
    Recommended Propagation Strategy:
    Seed
    Stem Cutting
    Country Or Region Of Origin:
    Eastern China, Korea
    Wildlife Value:
    Fruits are attractive to birds. Flowers attract bees. Members of the genus Ilex support the following specialized bee: Colletes banksi.
    Play Value:
    Buffer
    Sound
    Wildlife Food Source
    Wind Break
    Dimensions:
    Height: 8 ft. 0 in. - 25 ft. 0 in.
    Width: 5 ft. 0 in. - 10 ft. 0 in.
  • Whole Plant Traits:
    Plant Type:
    Shrub
    Tree
    Leaf Characteristics:
    Broadleaf Evergreen
    Habit/Form:
    Dense
    Erect
    Rounded
    Growth Rate:
    Medium
    Maintenance:
    Medium
    Texture:
    Medium
    Appendage:
    Spines
  • Cultural Conditions:
    Light:
    Full sun (6 or more hours of direct sunlight a day)
    Soil Texture:
    Clay
    High Organic Matter
    Loam (Silt)
    Sand
    Shallow Rocky
    Soil pH:
    Acid (<6.0)
    Alkaline (>8.0)
    Soil Drainage:
    Good Drainage
    NC Region:
    Coastal
    Mountains
    Piedmont
    Usda Plant Hardiness Zone:
    7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b
  • Fruit:
    Fruit Color:
    Red/Burgundy
    Fruit Value To Gardener:
    Long-lasting
    Display/Harvest Time:
    Fall
    Winter
    Fruit Type:
    Berry
    Fruit Length:
    < 1 inch
    Fruit Width:
    < 1 inch
    Fruit Description:
    Fruits are bright to dull-red and berry-like. They drupe on female plants. Fruits persist into winter.
  • Flowers:
    Flower Color:
    White
    Flower Bloom Time:
    Spring
    Flower Petals:
    4-5 petals/rays
    Flower Size:
    < 1 inch
    Flower Description:
    Small, axillary, dull white flowers in spring that are 0.2-0.3 in. Male and female flowers are on different plants (dioecious).
  • Leaves:
    Leaf Characteristics:
    Broadleaf Evergreen
    Leaf Color:
    Green
    Leaf Feel:
    Glossy
    Leathery
    Prickly
    Leaf Type:
    Simple
    Leaf Arrangement:
    Alternate
    Leaf Shape:
    Oblong
    Hairs Present:
    No
    Leaf Length:
    1-3 inches
    Leaf Width:
    1-3 inches
    Leaf Description:
    Alternate, coriaceous, simple, dark glossy green leaves above, yellow-green below. Leaves are 1.5-4 in. long, are oblong-rectangular, and have a varying number of marginal spines. Leaves have three strong spines on the apex and one or two spines at the base that can resemble bull horns. The apex is spinose, points downward, and terminates in a spine. There is typically a spine at each corner of the rectangle, plus one on the downward curving middle leaf. Leaves have minute, dark, and triangular stipules.
  • Bark:
    Bark Color:
    Light Gray
    Surface/Attachment:
    Smooth
    Bark Description:
    Smooth gray
  • Stem:
    Stem Color:
    Gray/Silver
    Stem Is Aromatic:
    No
  • Landscape:
    Landscape Location:
    Lawn
    Landscape Theme:
    Drought Tolerant Garden
    Pollinator Garden
    Rock Garden
    Winter Garden
    Design Feature:
    Hedge
    Specimen
    Attracts:
    Bees
    Pollinators
    Songbirds
    Specialized Bees
    Resistance To Challenges:
    Deer
    Drought
    Heat