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Cyrilla racemiflora

Previously known as:

  • Cyrilla antillana
Phonetic Spelling
sir-RIL-ah rah-see-MIH-flor-ah
Description

Swamp Cyrilla, or Titi, is an evergreen, semi-evergreen or tardily deciduous tree that is native to SE North America and occurs in coastal and Piedmont NC. It looks shrubby when young but will eventually develop into a small tree with contorted stems, smooth, cinnamon-colored young bark and flaky mature bark. Showy white clusters of summer flowers and orange-red fall color make this a nice ornamental tree for the home landscape. Plus the pollinators and birds will love you for planting it.

Its preference is for moist to wet well-drained sandy loam high in organic matter in full sun to partial shade. It tolerates drier sites as long as adequate moisture is provided during dry periods. It can form thickets providing cover for wildlife, especially in wet sites.

Use this tree as a specimen, in a native garden, along ponds, streams, bogs or other wet sites. 

Titi has no serious insect or disease problems

See this plant in the following landscape:
Cultivars / Varieties:
Tags:
#contorted trunk#bees#evergreen#showy flowers#deciduous#fall color#small tree#fragrant flowers#wildlife plant#native tree#honey bees#aromatic#nectar plant#native shrub#cover plant#winter interest#fall interest#wet sites#stream banks#honey#food source#fire#medium flammability#NC native#deer resistant#pond#bog#pollinator plant#Braham Arboretum#food source winter#cover#food source fall#food source herbage#food source nectar#food source pollen#Coastal FACW#Piedmont Mountains FACW#wet soils tolerant#butterfly friendly#nectar plant early summer#nectar plant mid-summer#pollinator garden#audubon
 
Cultivars / Varieties:
Tags:
#contorted trunk#bees#evergreen#showy flowers#deciduous#fall color#small tree#fragrant flowers#wildlife plant#native tree#honey bees#aromatic#nectar plant#native shrub#cover plant#winter interest#fall interest#wet sites#stream banks#honey#food source#fire#medium flammability#NC native#deer resistant#pond#bog#pollinator plant#Braham Arboretum#food source winter#cover#food source fall#food source herbage#food source nectar#food source pollen#Coastal FACW#Piedmont Mountains FACW#wet soils tolerant#butterfly friendly#nectar plant early summer#nectar plant mid-summer#pollinator garden#audubon
  • Attributes:
    Genus:
    Cyrilla
    Species:
    racemiflora
    Family:
    Cyrillaceae
    Uses (Ethnobotany):
    The plant has been used medicinally
    Life Cycle:
    Perennial
    Woody
    Recommended Propagation Strategy:
    Root Cutting
    Seed
    Stem Cutting
    Country Or Region Of Origin:
    southeastern U.S.A., NC to Tropical America
    Distribution:
    AL , DE , FL , GA , LA , MS , NC , SC , TX , VA
    Fire Risk Rating:
    medium flammability
    Wildlife Value:
    It provides great cover during extreme weather. Butterflies, bees and other pollinators feed on the nectar from the flowers.  Bees produce dark honey from this tree. Mammals and birds eat the fruits. Its foliage is browsed by white-tailed deer.
    Particularly Resistant To (Insects/Diseases/Other Problems):
    Heat, drought, and soil compaction tolerant.
    Dimensions:
    Height: 8 ft. 0 in. - 30 ft. 0 in.
    Width: 10 ft. 0 in. - 15 ft. 0 in.
  • Whole Plant Traits:
    Plant Type:
    Native Plant
    Shrub
    Tree
    Woody Plant Leaf Characteristics:
    Deciduous
    Semi-evergreen
    Habit/Form:
    Rounded
    Spreading
    Growth Rate:
    Medium
    Maintenance:
    Medium
    Texture:
    Medium
  • Cultural Conditions:
    Light:
    Full sun (6 or more hours of direct sunlight a day)
    Partial Shade (Direct sunlight only part of the day, 2-6 hours)
    Soil Texture:
    High Organic Matter
    Soil pH:
    Acid (<6.0)
    Soil Drainage:
    Moist
    Occasional Flooding
    Occasionally Wet
    Available Space To Plant:
    12-24 feet
    24-60 feet
    NC Region:
    Coastal
    Piedmont
    USDA Plant Hardiness Zone:
    5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7b, 7a, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b, 10a, 10b, 11b, 11a
  • Fruit:
    Fruit Color:
    Brown/Copper
    Gold/Yellow
    Fruit Value To Gardener:
    Showy
    Display/Harvest Time:
    Fall
    Fruit Type:
    Capsule
    Fruit Length:
    1-3 inches
    Fruit Description:
    Yellow-brown capsule ovoid, dry, 1/12 inch long, containing 1-5 seeds, but ending up with only 1 seed maturing. Persists into winter. Displays from September to October.
  • Flowers:
    Flower Color:
    White
    Flower Inflorescence:
    Raceme
    Flower Value To Gardener:
    Fragrant
    Showy
    Flower Bloom Time:
    Summer
    Flower Description:
    Profuse 3-6 in. drooping sprays or racemes of white fragrant flowers late spring into summer (May, June, July) produced on stalks from last year's growth. The flower stalks are subtended by slender bracts. Flower blooms from June to July.
  • Leaves:
    Woody Plant Leaf Characteristics:
    Deciduous
    Semi-evergreen
    Leaf Color:
    Gold/Yellow
    Green
    Leaf Feel:
    Smooth
    Deciduous Leaf Fall Color:
    Orange
    Red/Burgundy
    Leaf Type:
    Simple
    Leaf Arrangement:
    Alternate
    Leaf Shape:
    Oblanceolate
    Ovate
    Leaf Margin:
    Entire
    Hairs Present:
    No
    Leaf Length:
    3-6 inches
    Leaf Width:
    < 1 inch
    Leaf Description:
    Alternate, simple, oblanceolate (having a rounded apex and tapering base) to oval, rounded or pointed at the tip, narrowed to the base leaves. The leaves are thick, without teeth, smooth and sometimes nearly evergreen. They are also reticulate (net-like)-veined, up to 4 inches long, up to 1 inch wide. The leaves are bright green below and gradually becomes canary yellow to orange burgundy in the fall.
  • Bark:
    Bark Color:
    Light Brown
    Red/Burgundy
    Surface/Attachment:
    Smooth
    Bark Description:
    Smooth cinnamon-colored bark (maturing to grayish, exfoliating)
  • Stem:
    Stem Is Aromatic:
    No
  • Landscape:
    Landscape Location:
    Coastal
    Pond
    Riparian
    Landscape Theme:
    Butterfly Garden
    Pollinator Garden
    Rain Garden
    Water Garden
    Winter Garden
    Design Feature:
    Flowering Tree
    Attracts:
    Bees
    Butterflies
    Pollinators
    Small Mammals
    Songbirds
    Resistance To Challenges:
    Deer