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Viola canadensis

Common Name(s):

Phonetic Spelling
vy-OH-la ka-na-DEN-sis
Description

Canadian violets are North American wildflowers in the Violaceae family.  They have showy fragrant white tinged with purple flowers from summer to fall. They do not spread by runners like other violets.  They tolerate heavy shade and being planted under black walnut trees.  They freely self-seed to the point of being weedy. They perform better in cool summer climates of the northern U.S. and Canada than in hot summers like most of North Carolina.  They are probably too weedy for rock gardens or boarders but do well in shaded woodland gardens.

 

Cultivars / Varieties:
Tags:
#bees#fragrant#fragrant flowers#heavy shade#deep shade#weedy#nectar plant#black walnut#specialized bees#cpp#deer resistant#woodland#pollinator plant#butterfly friendly
 
Cultivars / Varieties:
Tags:
#bees#fragrant#fragrant flowers#heavy shade#deep shade#weedy#nectar plant#black walnut#specialized bees#cpp#deer resistant#woodland#pollinator plant#butterfly friendly
  • Attributes:
    Genus:
    Viola
    Species:
    canadensis
    Family:
    Violaceae
    Life Cycle:
    Perennial
    Wildlife Value:
    Nectar from the flowers attract butterflies and bees.  Members of the genus Viola support the following specialized bees: Andrena (Gonandrena) fragilis, Andrena (Gonandrena) integra, and Andrena (Gonandrena) platyparia. This plant is resistant to damage by deer.
  • Whole Plant Traits:
    Plant Type:
    Ground Cover
    Wildflower
    Woody Plant Leaf Characteristics:
    Deciduous
    Habit/Form:
    Erect
    Growth Rate:
    Medium
    Maintenance:
    Low
  • Cultural Conditions:
    Light:
    Dappled Sunlight (Shade through upper canopy all day)
    Deep shade (Less than 2 hours to no direct sunlight)
    Partial Shade (Direct sunlight only part of the day, 2-6 hours)
    Usda Plant Hardiness Zone:
    3a, 3b, 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b
  • Fruit:
    Fruit Type:
    Capsule
    Fruit Length:
    < 1 inch
    Fruit Width:
    < 1 inch
    Fruit Description:
    The oval capsule is up to 1/2 inch long and covered in fine hairs. It changes from green to brown before splitting into 3 sections to release numerous brown seeds.
  • Flowers:
    Flower Color:
    Cream/Tan
    Gold/Yellow
    Purple/Lavender
    White
    Flower Inflorescence:
    Head
    Flower Value To Gardener:
    Fragrant
    Flower Bloom Time:
    Fall
    Summer
    Flower Shape:
    Cup
    Flower Petals:
    4-5 petals/rays
    Flower Size:
    < 1 inch
    Flower Description:
    Flowers are about 1 inch across or less, slightly irregular with 5 white petals, distinctly yellow at the base, and dark purple lines on the lower petal. The side petals are “bearded” with tufts of short hairs. The backs of the petals are tinged purple.
  • Leaves:
    Woody Plant Leaf Characteristics:
    Deciduous
    Leaf Color:
    Green
    Leaf Arrangement:
    Opposite
    Rosulate
    Leaf Shape:
    Cordate
    Leaf Margin:
    Serrate
    Undulate
    Hairs Present:
    Yes
    Leaf Length:
    3-6 inches
    Leaf Width:
    1-3 inches
    Leaf Description:
    The basal and stem leaves are mostly heart-shaped with scalloped edges or shallow teeth and are 2-4 inches long and 3 inches wide. The tips are sharply pointed. The stem leaves are longer and narrower than basal ones. Fine hairs are on leaf edges and along major veins.
  • Stem:
    Stem Color:
    Green
    Stem Is Aromatic:
    No
  • Landscape:
    Landscape Location:
    Naturalized Area
    Woodland
    Attracts:
    Pollinators
    Specialized Bees
    Resistance To Challenges:
    Deer
    Problems:
    Weedy