Plant DetailShow Menu

Bergamot Monarda

Other Common Name(s):

Other plants called Bergamot:

Description

Monarda is a genus of flowering perennial plants in the Lamiaceae (mint) family. and is native to North America. There are several varieties and many cultivars available. They typically grow 2-4 feet tall but some may get taller. The fragrant flowers are pollinator magnets and generally bloom during the spring or summer in a variety of colors.

Bee balm does best in full sun with good air circulation to decrease powdery mildew problems. They need moist but well-drained soil and tolerate clay soils. Giving these plants enough moisture will keep them healthier and help prevent powdery mildew. They are resistant to damage by rabbits and deer. 

Use bee balm at the front or back of the border, depending on size. They are a must for sunny native pollinator gardens. They will self-seed and spread by rhizomes so deadhead the flowers if this is not desirable. They can be pruned in late spring or early summer to promote bushiness and delay bloom time. Divide the clumps every few years to prevent crowded conditions.

Insects, Diseases, and Other Plant Problems: Powdery mildew can be a big problem. There are cultivars that have some mildew resistance available.

VIDEO created by Andy Pulte for “Landscape Plant Identification, Taxonomy and Morphology” a plant identification course offered by the Department of Plant Sciences, University of Tennessee.

 

Profile Video:
See this plant in the following landscape:
Cultivars / Varieties:
Tags:
#fragrant#hummingbirds#purple flowers#pink flowers#red flowers#summer flowers#native garden#pollinator plant#nectar plant mid-summer#bee friendly#edible#butterflies#herb#sun#pollinator garden#borders#landscape plant sleuths course
 
Cultivars / Varieties:
Tags:
#fragrant#hummingbirds#purple flowers#pink flowers#red flowers#summer flowers#native garden#pollinator plant#nectar plant mid-summer#bee friendly#edible#butterflies#herb#sun#pollinator garden#borders#landscape plant sleuths course
  • Attributes:
    Genus:
    Monarda
    Family:
    Lamiaceae
    Uses (Ethnobotany):
    Used in herbal medicine by Native Americans
    Life Cycle:
    Perennial
    Country Or Region Of Origin:
    North America
    Play Value:
    Attractive Flowers
    Attracts Pollinators
    Fragrance
    Wildlife Food Source
    Edibility:
    Tea can be made from the plant
    Dimensions:
    Height: 2 ft. 0 in. - 4 ft. 0 in.
    Width: 2 ft. 0 in. - 3 ft. 0 in.
  • Whole Plant Traits:
    Plant Type:
    Herb
    Herbaceous Perennial
    Perennial
    Habit/Form:
    Erect
    Spreading
    Growth Rate:
    Medium
    Maintenance:
    Medium
    Texture:
    Medium
  • Cultural Conditions:
    Light:
    Full sun (6 or more hours of direct sunlight a day)
    Partial Shade (Direct sunlight only part of the day, 2-6 hours)
    Soil Texture:
    Clay
    High Organic Matter
    Loam (Silt)
    Sand
    Soil pH:
    Acid (<6.0)
    Alkaline (>8.0)
    Neutral (6.0-8.0)
    Soil Drainage:
    Good Drainage
    Moist
    Available Space To Plant:
    12 inches-3 feet
    NC Region:
    Coastal
    Mountains
    Piedmont
    USDA Plant Hardiness Zone:
    4a, 4b, 5b, 5a, 6b, 6a, 7b, 7a, 8a, 8b, 9b, 9a
  • Fruit:
    Fruit Color:
    Brown/Copper
    Display/Harvest Time:
    Fall
    Summer
    Fruit Type:
    Capsule
    Fruit Length:
    < 1 inch
    Fruit Width:
    < 1 inch
    Fruit Description:
    Seeds form in the tubes of the flowers and fall out easily
  • Flowers:
    Flower Color:
    Pink
    Purple/Lavender
    Red/Burgundy
    Flower Inflorescence:
    Head
    Flower Value To Gardener:
    Fragrant
    Good Cut
    Showy
    Flower Bloom Time:
    Spring
    Summer
    Flower Shape:
    Tubular
    Flower Petals:
    2-3 rays/petals
    Flower Size:
    1-3 inches
    Flower Description:
    The flowers appear at the ends of the stems or in the leaf axis. There are several tubular flowers rising from the center of the head that has a narrow upper lip and a wider lower lip. Each flower head is subtended by (rests upon) a whorl of leafy bracts
  • Leaves:
    Leaf Color:
    Green
    Leaf Value To Gardener:
    Fragrant
    Leaf Type:
    Simple
    Leaf Arrangement:
    Opposite
    Leaf Shape:
    Lanceolate
    Ovate
    Leaf Margin:
    Serrate
    Hairs Present:
    Yes
    Leaf Length:
    3-6 inches
    Leaf Width:
    1-3 inches
    Leaf Description:
    The slender leaves are green and range in size from 2.5- to 5 inches long with a mint fragrance. They are lanceolate to ovate with none to sparse hairs and serrated margins.
  • Stem:
    Stem Color:
    Green
    Stem Is Aromatic:
    No
    Stem Cross Section:
    Square
    Stem Description:
    Square green stems
  • Landscape:
    Landscape Location:
    Naturalized Area
    Walkways
    Landscape Theme:
    Butterfly Garden
    Children's Garden
    Cottage Garden
    Garden for the Blind
    Native Garden
    Pollinator Garden
    Design Feature:
    Border
    Small groups
    Attracts:
    Bees
    Butterflies
    Hummingbirds
    Pollinators
    Songbirds
    Resistance To Challenges:
    Deer
    Rabbits