Plant DetailShow Menu

Hawthorn Crataegus uniflora

Previously known as:

  • Crataegus bisulcata
  • Crataegus raleighensis
Phonetic Spelling
krah-TEE-gus yoo-nih-FLOR-uh
Description

Crataegus, or Hawthorn, is a small deciduous tree or shrub in the rose family that includes many species and varieties distributed across North Carolina. Crataegus uniflora, or Dwarf Hawthorn, is found naturally in forests, roadsides, rock outcrops, and other disturbed lands with xeric to sub-xeric conditions. It grows as a  spreading shrub or small tree with short, stout trunks, a rounded crown and crooked branches. It appears in tree form only in Northern Florida. It is heat tolerant with good fall color. Like most Hawthorns, Dwarf Hawthorn, has straight fine thorns, solitary white flowers that appear in spring, and fall fruits.

This shrub prefers well-drained soils on the drier side in sun to partial shade.  Once established, it succeeds in excessively moist soils and also tolerates drought. It grows well in organic as well as clay and sandy soils and can tolerate windy conditions. However, it does not do well with exposure to maritime salt air. It can be easily pruned and could be used as a barrier, hedge or as a wildlife plant in naturalized areas. It is beneficial to birds, small mammals and pollinators. It may be difficult to find for sale.

Diseases, Insects, and Other Plant Problems:

No known disease or pest issues.

See this plant in the following landscape:
Cultivars / Varieties:
Tags:
#hummingbirds#evergreen#small tree#heat tolerant#white flowers#wildlife plants#native tree#moths#native shrub#security plant#hedges#NC native#pollinator plant#naturalized area#late spring flowers#evergreen shrub#larval host plant#evergreen tree#mid-spring flowers#food source herbage#food source nectar#food source pollen#bird friendly#nectar plant late spring#mammals#food source soft mast fruit#butterfly friendly#nectar plant mid-spring#moth larvae#pollinator garden#bee friendly#non-toxic for horses#non-toxic for dogs#non-toxic for cats#audubon#red-spotted purple butterfly#gray hairstreak butterfly#viceroy butterflies
 
Cultivars / Varieties:
Tags:
#hummingbirds#evergreen#small tree#heat tolerant#white flowers#wildlife plants#native tree#moths#native shrub#security plant#hedges#NC native#pollinator plant#naturalized area#late spring flowers#evergreen shrub#larval host plant#evergreen tree#mid-spring flowers#food source herbage#food source nectar#food source pollen#bird friendly#nectar plant late spring#mammals#food source soft mast fruit#butterfly friendly#nectar plant mid-spring#moth larvae#pollinator garden#bee friendly#non-toxic for horses#non-toxic for dogs#non-toxic for cats#audubon#red-spotted purple butterfly#gray hairstreak butterfly#viceroy butterflies
  • Attributes:
    Genus:
    Crataegus
    Species:
    uniflora
    Family:
    Rosaceae
    Uses (Ethnobotany):
    Wood is strong, heavy, and hard, but not commercially valuable.
    Life Cycle:
    Perennial
    Woody
    Recommended Propagation Strategy:
    Seed
    Country Or Region Of Origin:
    South Eastern United States
    Distribution:
    AL , AR , DC , DE , FL , GA , KY , LA , MD , MO , MS , NC , NJ , NY , OH , OK , PA , SC , TN , TX , VA , WV
    Wildlife Value:
    Provides nesting sites and protection for birds, small mammals and other pollinators. It is a larval host plant for Gray Hairstreak (Strymon melinus), Red-spotted Purple (Limenitis arthemis astyanax), and Viceroy (Limenitis archippus). Red-spotted Purple and Viceroy rarely use this host plant in North Carolina. Flowers attract pollinators. It is a larval host plant. The fruits are eaten by birds and mammals.
    Play Value:
    Attracts Pollinators
    Screening
    Wildlife Cover/Habitat
    Wildlife Food Source
    Wildlife Larval Host
    Wildlife Nesting
    Edibility:
    Fruit can be eaten, raw or cooked, and is born singly, or in groups of up to 3 fruits.
    Dimensions:
    Height: 2 ft. 0 in. - 12 ft. 0 in.
    Width: 3 ft. 0 in. - 10 ft. 0 in.
  • Whole Plant Traits:
    Plant Type:
    Native Plant
    Shrub
    Tree
    Woody Plant Leaf Characteristics:
    Broadleaf Evergreen
    Deciduous
    Habit/Form:
    Erect
    Rounded
    Spreading
    Maintenance:
    Low
    Appendage:
    Thorns
  • Cultural Conditions:
    Light:
    Full sun (6 or more hours of direct sunlight a day)
    Partial Shade (Direct sunlight only part of the day, 2-6 hours)
    Soil Texture:
    Clay
    Loam (Silt)
    Sand
    Shallow Rocky
    Soil pH:
    Acid (<6.0)
    Alkaline (>8.0)
    Neutral (6.0-8.0)
    Soil Drainage:
    Good Drainage
    Moist
    Occasionally Dry
    Occasionally Wet
    Available Space To Plant:
    3 feet-6 feet
    6-feet-12 feet
    NC Region:
    Coastal
    Mountains
    Piedmont
    USDA Plant Hardiness Zone:
    4a, 4b, 5b, 5a, 6a, 6b, 7b, 7a, 8a, 9b, 9a
  • Fruit:
    Fruit Color:
    Gold/Yellow
    Green
    Red/Burgundy
    Fruit Value To Gardener:
    Edible
    Display/Harvest Time:
    Fall
    Fruit Type:
    Pome
    Fruit Length:
    < 1 inch
    Fruit Width:
    < 1 inch
    Fruit Description:
    Green yellow to dull red. Fruits are available September-October.
  • Flowers:
    Flower Color:
    White
    Flower Inflorescence:
    Solitary
    Flower Value To Gardener:
    Fragrant
    Flower Bloom Time:
    Spring
    Flower Shape:
    Cup
    Flower Petals:
    4-5 petals/rays
    Flower Description:
    Solitary five petaled white flowers with cream or white colored anthers in April-May. Initial fragrance can be unpleasant, but attracts midges for pollination.
  • Leaves:
    Woody Plant Leaf Characteristics:
    Broadleaf Evergreen
    Deciduous
    Leaf Color:
    Green
    Leaf Feel:
    Glossy
    Deciduous Leaf Fall Color:
    Gold/Yellow
    Red/Burgundy
    Leaf Type:
    Simple
    Leaf Arrangement:
    Alternate
    Leaf Shape:
    Elliptical
    Oblong
    Ovate
    Leaf Margin:
    Crenate
    Serrate
    Hairs Present:
    Yes
    Leaf Length:
    < 1 inch
    Leaf Width:
    < 1 inch
    Leaf Description:
    Oval to oblong leaves with margins serrated to crenate, bases cuneate, tip obtuse to broadly acute. Often glossy green and sparsely to moderately hairy. Half to one inch long by half inch or less wide. Stems short or missing. Leaves small and unlobed.
  • Bark:
    Bark Color:
    Light Gray
    Surface/Attachment:
    Scaly
    Bark Description:
    Thin, gray bark that, in older stems, breaks up into narrow scales.
  • Stem:
    Stem Color:
    Brown/Copper
    Red/Burgundy
    Stem Is Aromatic:
    No
    Stem Form:
    Zig Zags
    Stem Surface:
    Hairy (pubescent)
    Stem Description:
    Twigs are hairy, thorny and reddish-brown
  • Landscape:
    Landscape Location:
    Naturalized Area
    Landscape Theme:
    Butterfly Garden
    Native Garden
    Pollinator Garden
    Design Feature:
    Barrier
    Flowering Tree
    Hedge
    Attracts:
    Bees
    Butterflies
    Hummingbirds
    Moths
    Pollinators
    Small Mammals
    Songbirds
    Resistance To Challenges:
    Drought
    Heat
    Pollution
    Problems:
    Spines/Thorns