Plant DetailShow Menu

Hawthorn Crataegus collina

Previously known as:

  • Crataegus collicola
  • Crataegus punctata
Phonetic Spelling
krah-TEE-gus KOL-in-uh
Description

The Hawthorn genus contains many different species and varieties native to North Carolina and grown from the low swamps and river bottoms in the East to the mountain ridges is the West. Crataegus collina, or Hillside Hawthorn, is a flat-topped, horizontal branching, deciduous native shrub or small tree in the rose family found in the North Carolina mountain area in open, hardwood and conifer-hardwood forests at lower elevations. Hillside Hawthorn are sometimes used as ornamentals and provide many benefits for birds, bees and mammals including food, nesting sites and cover.

This tree will grow in sun to partial shade and prefers moist well-drained soils. The flowers appear in spring and are followed by a yellow to orange pome that is edible and a favorite of bees, wasps, birds and small mammals. It does not tolerate drought well and is often leafless by mid-August during hot summers. The branches are armed with 2-inch thorns although not as many as some hawthorns.

Insects, disease and other problems: 

Quite susceptible to rust. Numerous thorns. Fruit drop could be messy.

See this plant in the following landscape:
Cultivars / Varieties:
Tags:
#thorns#sun#deciduous#small tree#partial shade#shrub#wildlife plant#moths#deciduous shrub#native shrub#cover plant#hedges#food source#privacy#NC native#edible fruits#Braham Arboretum#nesting sites#larval host plant#bird friendly#nectar plant late spring#butterfly friendly#nectar plant mid-spring#pollinator garden#non-toxic for horses#non-toxic for dogs#non-toxic for cats#red-spotted purple butterfly#gray hairstreak butterfly#viceroy butterfly
 
Cultivars / Varieties:
Tags:
#thorns#sun#deciduous#small tree#partial shade#shrub#wildlife plant#moths#deciduous shrub#native shrub#cover plant#hedges#food source#privacy#NC native#edible fruits#Braham Arboretum#nesting sites#larval host plant#bird friendly#nectar plant late spring#butterfly friendly#nectar plant mid-spring#pollinator garden#non-toxic for horses#non-toxic for dogs#non-toxic for cats#red-spotted purple butterfly#gray hairstreak butterfly#viceroy butterfly
  • Attributes:
    Genus:
    Crataegus
    Species:
    collina
    Family:
    Rosaceae
    Uses (Ethnobotany):
    The leaves, berries, and flowers are used in medicines and herbals for cardiovascular health. The wood is strong, tough, heavy, and hard, but has little commercial value.
    Life Cycle:
    Perennial
    Woody
    Recommended Propagation Strategy:
    Seed
    Country Or Region Of Origin:
    Eastern Canada south to Georgia, west to the Mississippi.
    Distribution:
    AL, AR, CT, DE, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, MA, MD, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, TN, VA, VT, WI, WV
    Wildlife Value:
    Important nectar flower for insects; food plant of many moths including the eggar moth; haws provide winter fruit for songbirds. This plant also provides nectar for pollinators. It is a larval host plant for Gray Hairstreak (Strymon melinus), Red-spotted Purple (Limenitis arthemis astyanax), and Viceroy (Limenitis archippus). Red-spotted Purple and Viceroy rarely use this host plant in North Carolina. Good nesting habitat with thorns providing protection from predators.
    Play Value:
    Edible fruit
    Wildlife Cover/Habitat
    Wildlife Food Source
    Wildlife Nesting
  • Whole Plant Traits:
    Plant Type:
    Native Plant
    Shrub
    Woody Plant Leaf Characteristics:
    Deciduous
    Habit/Form:
    Horizontal
    Rounded
    Growth Rate:
    Medium
    Maintenance:
    Medium
    Texture:
    Coarse
    Appendage:
    Thorns
  • Cultural Conditions:
    Light:
    Full sun (6 or more hours of direct sunlight a day)
    Partial Shade (Direct sunlight only part of the day, 2-6 hours)
    Soil Texture:
    Clay
    Loam (Silt)
    Sand
    Soil pH:
    Neutral (6.0-8.0)
    Soil Drainage:
    Good Drainage
    Moist
    NC Region:
    Mountains
    Piedmont
    USDA Plant Hardiness Zone:
    4b, 4a, 5b, 5a, 6b, 6a, 7b, 7a
  • Fruit:
    Fruit Color:
    Orange
    Red/Burgundy
    Fruit Value To Gardener:
    Edible
    Display/Harvest Time:
    Fall
    Fruit Type:
    Pome
    Fruit Description:
    Small orange to red pome with 3 to 5 pyrenes that resemble the “stones” in related plums, peaches, etc. Sometimes called the ‘haw’.
  • Flowers:
    Flower Color:
    Cream/Tan
    White
    Flower Inflorescence:
    Corymb
    Flower Value To Gardener:
    Fragrant
    Flower Bloom Time:
    Spring
    Flower Petals:
    4-5 petals/rays
    Flower Description:
    The numerous flowers are in corymbs, pubescent to nearly glabrous and 0.5 to 0.8 inches wide, with 5 petals. The flowers are white, with 2-5 styles and 20 pink or yellow stamens. Blooms in April-May.
  • Leaves:
    Woody Plant Leaf Characteristics:
    Deciduous
    Leaf Color:
    Green
    Leaf Type:
    Simple
    Leaf Arrangement:
    Alternate
    Leaf Shape:
    Obovate
    Rhomboidal
    Leaf Margin:
    Serrate
    Hairs Present:
    Yes
    Leaf Length:
    3-6 inches
    Leaf Width:
    1-3 inches
    Leaf Description:
    Spirally arranged on long stalks. Pubescent, rhombic-obovate in shape. Apex is blunt or rounded and base is tapering. Lobes 0-2 per side above the middle, margins serrate in distal ¾ of lobes. Undersides paler. Two to four inches long and 0.8 to 2 inches wide.
  • Bark:
    Bark Color:
    Light Gray
    Surface/Attachment:
    Fissured
    Smooth
    Bark Description:
    Smooth and gray bark, fissuring with age.
  • Stem:
    Stem Color:
    Brown/Copper
    Gray/Silver
    Stem Is Aromatic:
    No
    Stem Surface:
    Hairy (pubescent)
    Stem Description:
    Bark is thin and gray. Twigs are brown to gray, hairy when young, with many short and stout thorns or spines up to 2.5 inches. The bark of older stems tends to break up into narrow scales.
  • Landscape:
    Landscape Location:
    Woodland
    Landscape Theme:
    Butterfly Garden
    Pollinator Garden
    Design Feature:
    Hedge
    Screen/Privacy
    Attracts:
    Bees
    Butterflies
    Pollinators
    Small Mammals
    Songbirds
    Problems:
    Spines/Thorns