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Pinus echinata

Common Name(s):
Shortleaf pine
Categories:
Native Plants, Trees
Comment:

The Pinus echinata has attractive reddish-brown bark in scaly plates on mature trees.  As the tree ages, the flat scales reveal a yellowish color when removed.

It is an important timber tree in the deep South where it is harvested for a variety of purposes, including lumber, plywood and wood pulp (for paper). Oleoresins are extracted to make turpentine. 

The formation of a deep taproot complicates transplanting from the wild.         

Regions:  Mountain, Piedmont, Coastal Plains

Seasons of Interest: 

     Bloom:  Spring        Fruit/Seed/Nut:  Fall

Wildlife Value:  The Shortleaf pine is moderately resistant to deer damage.  It provides winter cover.  It is also a host plant for the Eastern Pine Elfin butterfly and many moths.  Squirrels, other small mammals, and birds eat the seeds.

 Insects, Diseases, or Other Plant Problems:  Healthy, well-maintained Shortleaf pine trees usually have few problems. Pine beetles and weevils are potential insect pests.

Height:
80-100 ft.
Flower:
In the spring, red to yellow, male and light green to red, female flowers mature on the Shortleaf pine. This tree produces both a pale purple male cone and a pale pink female cone.
Zones:
6-9
Habit:
Evergreen
Site:
The Shortleaf Pine grows best in average, dry to medium, well-drained soils in full sun. It will tolerate some light shade. It will also tolerate a wide range of soils but prefers sandy loams.
Texture:
Medium
Form:
Pyramidal in youth; develops a small narrow crown with age; horizontal branches
Exposure:
Sun
Fruit:
Cones
Width:
30 ft.
Growth Rate:
Rapid
Leaf:
The Shortleaf Pine has dark bluish-green needles (3-5" long) that appear in bundles of two. Cylindrical brown cones (1.5 to 2.5" long) are usually not produced until the tree reaches 20 years old. Attractive reddish-brown bark in scaly plates on mature trees.
Tags:
butterflies, birds, screen, shelter, deer resistant, evergreen

NCCES plant id: 2091

pinus echinata pinus echinata
Franklin Bonner, CC BY-NC-ND - 2.0