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Shortleaf Pine Pinus echinata

Phonetic Spelling
PY-nus ek-in-AY-tuh
Description

Shortleaf Pine is an evergreen tree that may grow 80 to 100 feet tall. The tree has 3- to 5-inch slender and flexible needles in clusters of 2 or 3. The fascicle sheath is persistent. The bark is scaly and dark on young trees. As the tree ages, flat scales which reveal a yellowish color when removed develop. The tree produces both a pale purple male cone and a pale pink female cone.

The Shortleaf Pine grows best in average, dry to medium, well-drained soils in full sun.  It will tolerate some light shade.  It will also tolerate a wide range of soils but prefers sandy loams.

It is an important timber tree in the deep South where it is harvested for a variety of purposes, including lumber, plywood and wood pulp (for paper).  The wood is heavy and hard, fine-grained with a yellow-brown or orange color, containing less resin than other pines economically important to the South.  Oleoresins are extracted to make turpentine. 

Buds: 6 mm (0.2 in.) long oblong to ovate, reddish-brown to greyish-brown scales and resinous. 

The formation of a deep taproot complicates transplanting from the wild.        

Fire Risk: This plant has a high flammability rating and should not be planted within the defensible space of your home. Select plants with a low flammability rating for the sites nearest your home. 

 Insects, Diseases, or Other Plant Problems:  Healthy, well-maintained Shortleaf pine trees usually have few problems. Pine beetles and weevils are potential insect pests.

See this plant in the following landscape:
Cultivars / Varieties:
Tags:
#evergreen#sun#wildlife plant#native tree#conifer#cover plant#shelter#food source#fire#high flammability#NC native#well-drained soil#deer resistant#screening#Braham Arboretum#larval host plant#cover#food source fall#food source herbage#sandy soils tolerant#loamy soils tolerant#bird friendly#food source hard mast fruit#butterfly friendly#audubon
 
Cultivars / Varieties:
Tags:
#evergreen#sun#wildlife plant#native tree#conifer#cover plant#shelter#food source#fire#high flammability#NC native#well-drained soil#deer resistant#screening#Braham Arboretum#larval host plant#cover#food source fall#food source herbage#sandy soils tolerant#loamy soils tolerant#bird friendly#food source hard mast fruit#butterfly friendly#audubon
  • Attributes:
    Genus:
    Pinus
    Species:
    echinata
    Family:
    Pinaeceae
    Uses (Ethnobotany):
    Use as Lumber, plywood, even taproots are used for pulpwood. Also used to make turpentine.
    Life Cycle:
    Woody
    Country Or Region Of Origin:
    Southeastern United States
    Distribution:
    Southeastern NY west to eastern OK south to southern TX east to northern FL
    Fire Risk Rating:
    high flammability
    Wildlife Value:
    It provides winter cover.  It is also a host plant for the Eastern Pine Elfin butterfly and many moths.  Squirrels, other small mammals, and birds eat the seeds.
    Play Value:
    Wildlife Food Source
    Wind Break
    Particularly Resistant To (Insects/Diseases/Other Problems):
    The Shortleaf pine is moderately resistant to deer damage.
    Dimensions:
    Height: 80 ft. 0 in. - 100 ft. 0 in.
    Width: 20 ft. 0 in. - 40 ft. 0 in.
  • Whole Plant Traits:
    Plant Type:
    Native Plant
    Tree
    Woody Plant Leaf Characteristics:
    Needled Evergreen
    Habit/Form:
    Horizontal
    Pyramidal
    Growth Rate:
    Rapid
    Maintenance:
    Low
    Texture:
    Medium
  • Cultural Conditions:
    Light:
    Full sun (6 or more hours of direct sunlight a day)
    Partial Shade (Direct sunlight only part of the day, 2-6 hours)
    Soil Texture:
    Loam (Silt)
    Sand
    Soil Drainage:
    Good Drainage
    Moist
    Occasionally Dry
    Available Space To Plant:
    24-60 feet
    more than 60 feet
    NC Region:
    Coastal
    Mountains
    Piedmont
    USDA Plant Hardiness Zone:
    6b, 6a, 7b, 7a, 8b, 8a, 9b, 9a
  • Fruit:
    Fruit Color:
    Brown/Copper
    Pink
    Purple/Lavender
    Display/Harvest Time:
    Fall
    Fruit Length:
    1-3 inches
    Fruit Description:
    The symmetrical, ovoid, short-stalked cones (1.5 to 2.5" long) are usually not produced until the tree reaches 20 years of age. The tip of each scale has a short spine. This tree produces both a pale purple male cone and a pale pink female cone that releases seeds from fall to winter. Once empty, the cones stay attached to the tree for many years. Fruit displays from September to October.
  • Flowers:
    Flower Bloom Time:
    Spring
    Flower Description:
    No flowers
  • Leaves:
    Woody Plant Leaf Characteristics:
    Needled Evergreen
    Leaf Color:
    Blue
    Green
    Leaf Type:
    Needles
    Leaf Arrangement:
    Other/more complex
    Leaf Shape:
    Acicular
    Oblong
    Ovate
    Hairs Present:
    No
    Leaf Length:
    3-6 inches
    Leaf Width:
    < 1 inch
    Leaf Description:
    The Shortleaf Pine has slender, flexible, dark bluish-green needles (3-5" long) that appear in bundles of two or three. It begins to drop needles at the end of its second season, some needles remaining until its fifth year.
  • Bark:
    Bark Color:
    Black
    Dark Gray
    Light Brown
    Red/Burgundy
    Surface/Attachment:
    Furrowed
    Ridges
    Bark Plate Shape:
    Irregular
    Bark Description:
    Rough, dark grey to black bark when young and reddish or yellowish-brown to dark brown when mature, furrowed into irregular flat, scaly plates with small resin pores dotted along scaly plates.
  • Stem:
    Stem Is Aromatic:
    No
    Stem Description:
    Comparatively slender branches to other pine species.
  • Landscape:
    Landscape Location:
    Woodland
    Landscape Theme:
    Butterfly Garden
    Native Garden
    Attracts:
    Butterflies
    Moths
    Small Mammals
    Songbirds
    Resistance To Challenges:
    Deer