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Strapleaf Violet Viola lanceolata

Phonetic Spelling
vy-OH-la lan-see-oh-LAY-tuh
Description

Lance-leaf Violet is a native wildflower that has a widespread natural habitat, but is distribution is limited by its need for a consistently wet location.  It is found in coastal plains, bogs, swamps, wet meadows, along shores, and other wet locations. It spreads by runners. The common name Bog White Violet is derived from its growing conditions.

The dainty white flowers bloom for a period of around 3 weeks in late spring into early summer above a basal rosette of lance-shaped leaves. The beardless, five petaled flowers are slightly irregular.  The petals are white and pale yellow at the base.  The two side petals are smooth with veins that may be barely viable, while the lower petal has many reddish-purple lines. These act as nectar guides for pollinators.   In the later part of the summer, inconspicuous, cleistogamous (self-fertile) flowers are produced.  They have no petals.  Light green, ellipsoid to oblongoid seed capsules replace these fertilized flowers.  The capsule will split into 3 parts, each containing small dark brown seeds.  

This variety of viola is easily distinguished from others by its long foliage, individual leaves can reach lengths of up to 6" long.  There are typically 2 to 6 leaves per plant.  The upper blade is a medium green and hairless.  The lower is pale green and may be sparsely haired.  Gradually, they taper into light green to reddish-purple slender petioles.

Individual plants can be connected by stolons which may form small colonies.

Due to habitat loss by land development, Lance-leaf Violet was elevated to threatened in 1996.  

See this plant in the following landscape:
Cultivars / Varieties:
Tags:
#white flowers#wildlife plants#nectar plant#shade garden#spring flowers#wetlands#pond margins#specialized bees#cpp#herbaceous#summer flowers#herbaceous perennials#pollinator plant#native wildflower#larval host plant#wet soils tolerant#butterfly friendly#partial shade tolerant#pollinator garden#bee friendly#bog gardens#poor drainage tolerant#drought intolerant#salt spray intolerant#salt intolerant#fritillary butterflies
 
Cultivars / Varieties:
Tags:
#white flowers#wildlife plants#nectar plant#shade garden#spring flowers#wetlands#pond margins#specialized bees#cpp#herbaceous#summer flowers#herbaceous perennials#pollinator plant#native wildflower#larval host plant#wet soils tolerant#butterfly friendly#partial shade tolerant#pollinator garden#bee friendly#bog gardens#poor drainage tolerant#drought intolerant#salt spray intolerant#salt intolerant#fritillary butterflies
  • Attributes:
    Genus:
    Viola
    Species:
    lanceolata
    Family:
    Violaceae
    Life Cycle:
    Perennial
    Recommended Propagation Strategy:
    Division
    Seed
    Country Or Region Of Origin:
    North America except the western plains
    Distribution:
    AL , AR , CA , CT , DC , DE , FL , GA , IA , IL , IN , KY , LA , MA , MD , ME , MI , MN , MO , MS , NC , NE , NH , NJ , NY , OH , OK , OR , PA , RI , SC , TN , TX , VA , VT , WA , WI , WV
    Wildlife Value:
    This plant supports Fritillary butterfly larvae. Nectar from the flowers attract butterflies and bees. Members of the genus Viola support the following specialized bees: Andrena (Gonandrena) fragilis, Andrena (Gonandrena) integra, and Andrena (Gonandrena) platyparia. This plant is resistant to damage by deer.
    Play Value:
    Attracts Pollinators
    Dimensions:
    Height: 0 ft. 2 in. - 0 ft. 6 in.
    Width: 0 ft. 2 in. - 0 ft. 6 in.
  • Whole Plant Traits:
    Plant Type:
    Herb
    Native Plant
    Wildflower
    Woody Plant Leaf Characteristics:
    Deciduous
    Habit/Form:
    Erect
    Growth Rate:
    Medium
    Maintenance:
    Low
    Texture:
    Medium
  • Cultural Conditions:
    Light:
    Dappled Sunlight (Shade through upper canopy all day)
    Deep shade (Less than 2 hours to no direct sunlight)
    Partial Shade (Direct sunlight only part of the day, 2-6 hours)
    Soil Texture:
    High Organic Matter
    Soil pH:
    Acid (<6.0)
    Soil Drainage:
    Frequent Standing Water
    Moist
    Occasionally Wet
    Available Space To Plant:
    Less than 12 inches
    NC Region:
    Coastal
    Piedmont
    USDA Plant Hardiness Zone:
    7b, 7a, 8b, 8a, 9b, 9a, 10b, 10a
  • Fruit:
    Fruit Color:
    Green
    Display/Harvest Time:
    Summer
    Fruit Type:
    Capsule
    Fruit Length:
    < 1 inch
    Fruit Width:
    < 1 inch
    Fruit Description:
    Light green oblong seed capsules are about 1/3" long. It splits open into 3 parts, ejecting the small dark brown seeds.
  • Flowers:
    Flower Color:
    Purple/Lavender
    White
    Flower Inflorescence:
    Head
    Solitary
    Flower Value To Gardener:
    Fragrant
    Flower Bloom Time:
    Spring
    Summer
    Flower Shape:
    Radial
    Flower Petals:
    4-5 petals/rays
    Flower Size:
    < 1 inch
    Flower Description:
    1/2-3/4 inch white flowers with purple veins on the lower petal. Solitary flowers form on green to reddish-purple pedicels and may be nodding.
  • Leaves:
    Woody Plant Leaf Characteristics:
    Deciduous
    Leaf Color:
    Gray/Silver
    Green
    Leaf Type:
    Simple
    Leaf Arrangement:
    Rosulate
    Leaf Shape:
    Elliptical
    Lanceolate
    Leaf Margin:
    Crenate
    Serrate
    Hairs Present:
    No
    Leaf Length:
    3-6 inches
    Leaf Width:
    < 1 inch
    Leaf Description:
    Forms lance-shaped basal leaves which are nearly erect and 2-6" long and ¼-¾" across.
  • Stem:
    Stem Color:
    Red/Burgundy
    Stem Is Aromatic:
    No
    Stem Surface:
    Smooth (glabrous)
    Stem Description:
    The leaf and flowers stems are reddish and smooth.
  • Landscape:
    Landscape Location:
    Naturalized Area
    Pond
    Woodland
    Landscape Theme:
    Butterfly Garden
    Native Garden
    Pollinator Garden
    Rain Garden
    Design Feature:
    Border
    Mass Planting
    Attracts:
    Butterflies
    Pollinators
    Specialized Bees
    Resistance To Challenges:
    Wet Soil