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Viburnum prunifolium

Phonetic Spelling
vih-BUR-num proo-nih-FOH-lee-um
Description

Blackhaw is a large suckering native shrub or small tree that may grow 20 feet tall and nearly as wide. It provides 3 seasons of interest and is a high-value wildlife plant. The spring flowers are in large white cymes and the fall leaf color is in reds and purples. Berries mature to purplish-black and are eaten by both humans and birds. Viburnums set fruit better with more than one shrub for pollination.

Blackhaw prefers partial sun to partial shade and moist to dry well-drained soils. It will grow in deep shade but will rarely bloom. It is adaptable to soil types and pHs. This is a great shrub for naturalized areas or can be used as a hedge or specimen. Blackhaw is drought tolerant, does well in urban conditions and can be pruned to a tree form.

 

 

See this plant in the following landscape:
Cultivars / Varieties:
  • 'Early Red'
    Spring leaves are reddish
  • 'Ovazam'
    smaller
'Early Red', 'Ovazam'
Tags:
#deciduous#fall color#wildlife plant#showy#native tree#native shrub#medicinal#playground#hedges#food source#low flammability#NC native#deer resistant#children's garden#fire resistant#edible fruits#Braham Arboretum#larval host plant#food source fall#food source herbage#food source nectar#food source pollen#fruits#bird friendly#food source soft mast fruit#FACU Piedmont Mountains#FACU Coastal#audubon
 
Cultivars / Varieties:
  • 'Early Red'
    Spring leaves are reddish
  • 'Ovazam'
    smaller
'Early Red', 'Ovazam'
Tags:
#deciduous#fall color#wildlife plant#showy#native tree#native shrub#medicinal#playground#hedges#food source#low flammability#NC native#deer resistant#children's garden#fire resistant#edible fruits#Braham Arboretum#larval host plant#food source fall#food source herbage#food source nectar#food source pollen#fruits#bird friendly#food source soft mast fruit#FACU Piedmont Mountains#FACU Coastal#audubon
  • Attributes:
    Genus:
    Viburnum
    Species:
    prunifolium
    Family:
    Viburnaceae
    Uses (Ethnobotany):
    This plant has been used for medicinal purposed by Native Americans.
    Life Cycle:
    Perennial
    Woody
    Recommended Propagation Strategy:
    Seed
    Stem Cutting
    Country Or Region Of Origin:
    Eastern North America
    Distribution:
    AL , AR , CT , DC , DE , GA , IA , IL , IN , KS , KY , LA , MD , MI , MO , MS , NC , NJ , NY , OH , OK , PA , SC , TN , TX , VA , WI , WV
    Fire Risk Rating:
    low flammability
    Wildlife Value:
    It is a host plant for Spring/Summer Azure butterflies. Its fruits are eaten by songbirds, squirrels and chipmunks. Its twig form provides shelter to wildlife.
    Play Value:
    Attractive Flowers
    Attracts Pollinators
    Edible fruit
    Wildlife Food Source
    Particularly Resistant To (Insects/Diseases/Other Problems):
    Fire in the landscape. Resistant to heat and drought.
    Edibility:
    Fruits can be eaten raw or used in jams and preserves.
    Dimensions:
    Height: 12 ft. 0 in. - 20 ft. 0 in.
    Width: 6 ft. 0 in. - 15 ft. 0 in.
  • Whole Plant Traits:
    Plant Type:
    Native Plant
    Shrub
    Woody Plant Leaf Characteristics:
    Deciduous
    Habit/Form:
    Erect
    Irregular
    Multi-stemmed
    Rounded
    Growth Rate:
    Slow
    Maintenance:
    Low
    Texture:
    Medium
  • Cultural Conditions:
    Light:
    Full sun (6 or more hours of direct sunlight a day)
    Partial Shade (Direct sunlight only part of the day, 2-6 hours)
    Soil Texture:
    Clay
    Loam (Silt)
    Sand
    Shallow Rocky
    Soil pH:
    Acid (<6.0)
    Alkaline (>8.0)
    Neutral (6.0-8.0)
    Soil Drainage:
    Good Drainage
    Moist
    Occasionally Dry
    Available Space To Plant:
    6-feet-12 feet
    NC Region:
    Coastal
    Mountains
    Piedmont
    USDA Plant Hardiness Zone:
    3a, 3b, 4a, 4b, 5b, 5a, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9b, 9a
  • Fruit:
    Fruit Color:
    Black
    Blue
    Red/Burgundy
    Fruit Value To Gardener:
    Edible
    Showy
    Display/Harvest Time:
    Fall
    Fruit Type:
    Drupe
    Fruit Length:
    < 1 inch
    Fruit Width:
    < 1 inch
    Fruit Description:
    1/3 inch oval fruits are a mixture of green, yellow, and red-pink that transition to blue-black at maturity and are attractive to wildlife (especially birds). Display from September to October.
  • Flowers:
    Flower Color:
    Cream/Tan
    Pink
    White
    Flower Inflorescence:
    Cyme
    Flower Value To Gardener:
    Fragrant
    Showy
    Flower Bloom Time:
    Spring
    Flower Shape:
    Star
    Flower Petals:
    4-5 petals/rays
    Flower Size:
    < 1 inch
    Flower Description:
    4-5 inch clusters of small white fragrant flowers appear in the spring. Individual flowers at 5 petaled and 1/4 inch across with long yellowish stamens. Blooms from March to April.
  • Leaves:
    Woody Plant Leaf Characteristics:
    Deciduous
    Leaf Color:
    Gold/Yellow
    Green
    Leaf Value To Gardener:
    Showy
    Deciduous Leaf Fall Color:
    Purple/Lavender
    Red/Burgundy
    Leaf Type:
    Simple
    Leaf Arrangement:
    Opposite
    Leaf Shape:
    Obovate
    Ovate
    Leaf Margin:
    Entire
    Serrate
    Hairs Present:
    No
    Leaf Length:
    3-6 inches
    Leaf Width:
    1-3 inches
    Leaf Description:
    The ovate glossy leaves are 3-4 inches long and 1 inch across with fine serrations and a pointed tip. They turn red to purple in the fall.
  • Bark:
    Bark Color:
    Black
    Light Brown
    Light Gray
    Bark Plate Shape:
    Square
    Bark Description:
    The bark is brown-gray and smooth in youth, but rough with flat-topped plates and gray-black with age
  • Stem:
    Stem Color:
    Gray/Silver
    Stem Is Aromatic:
    No
    Stem Buds:
    Scaly
    Stem Leaf Scar Shape:
    Heart or shield shaped
    Stem Description:
    Twigs are smooth, gray, and relatively thin
  • Landscape:
    Landscape Location:
    Meadow
    Naturalized Area
    Recreational Play Area
    Woodland
    Landscape Theme:
    Children's Garden
    Edible Garden
    Native Garden
    Pollinator Garden
    Design Feature:
    Border
    Flowering Tree
    Hedge
    Specimen
    Attracts:
    Bees
    Butterflies
    Pollinators
    Small Mammals
    Songbirds
    Resistance To Challenges:
    Black Walnut
    Deer
    Drought
    Fire
    Pollution