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Juglans nigra

Common Name(s):

Phonetic Spelling
JOO-glanz NY-gruh
Description

Juglans nigra commonly known as Black Walnut as the nuts and husks can stain, prefers full sun and wet to dry loam or sandy high acidic to slightly alkaline soil. It is recognized by a 3-lobed leaf scar resembling a monkey face and the furrowed trunk bark. Its roots contain juglone which inhibits the growth of some plants such as azaleas, peonies, some vegetables like tomatoes, and blueberries beneath the tree's dripline. This massive tree with a 50-70ft height and width has an upright spreading open form and very deep taproot making it difficult to transplant.  It has the habit of losing its lower branches to begin its spread at 20 feet above the ground.  Both male and female flowers are on each tree (monoecious); male take the form of 2-4 inch long catkins with 17-50 stamens and female flowers form on the end of stalks bearing fruit in October. Leafing in late spring with yellow-green leaves and a fall color of clear yellow, it is an attractive tree of 24 inch alternate, pinnately compound leaves with 15-23 leaflets.  Nut production can sometimes begin as early as 6 years but usually takes 20 years for a substantial crop.  The fruits are both edible and used as a dye, though difficult to remove from the fleshy husk.  Once used by Native Americans medicinally, the tree is a scarce, native hardwood used in furniture and veneer.

Habitat: Moist, nutrient-rich forests of floodplains and slopes, calcareous

Cultivars / Varieties:
Tags:
#deciduous#shade tree#native tree#tree#edible nuts#nuts#NC native#single trunk#native garden#woodland#Braham Arboretum#larval host plant#food source fall#food source herbage#coastal UPL#food source hard-mast fruit#mammals#butterfly friendly#Piedmont Mountains FACU#ebh#ebh-fn#native edible#juglone
 
Cultivars / Varieties:
Tags:
#deciduous#shade tree#native tree#tree#edible nuts#nuts#NC native#single trunk#native garden#woodland#Braham Arboretum#larval host plant#food source fall#food source herbage#coastal UPL#food source hard-mast fruit#mammals#butterfly friendly#Piedmont Mountains FACU#ebh#ebh-fn#native edible#juglone
  • Attributes:
    Genus:
    Juglans
    Species:
    nigra
    Family:
    Juglandaceae
    Uses (Ethnobotany):
    Yellow dye made from fruit husks, seed is used in candy-making, cleaning abrasives, and explosives.
    Life Cycle:
    Woody
    Country Or Region Of Origin:
    Eastern U.S.A and South Eastern Canada
    Distribution:
    Northeast Canada west to North Dakota, Southwest to Utah South to Texas East to Florida.
    Wildlife Value:
    Larval host for Hickory and Banded Hairstreak butterflies.
    Particularly Resistant To (Insects/Diseases/Other Problems):
    Heat, drought, and soil compaction tolerant.
    Edibility:
    Nut is edible
    Dimensions:
    Height: 50 ft. 0 in. - 70 ft. 0 in.
    Width: 50 ft. 0 in. - 70 ft. 0 in.
  • Whole Plant Traits:
    Plant Type:
    Native Plant
    Tree
    Woody Plant Leaf Characteristics:
    Deciduous
    Habit/Form:
    Open
    Oval
    Rounded
    Growth Rate:
    Medium
    Texture:
    Coarse
  • Cultural Conditions:
    Light:
    Full sun (6 or more hours of direct sunlight a day)
    Partial Shade (Direct sunlight only part of the day, 2-6 hours)
    Soil pH:
    Alkaline (>8.0)
    Neutral (6.0-8.0)
    Soil Drainage:
    Good Drainage
    Moist
    Occasionally Dry
    Occasionally Wet
    Very Dry
    NC Region:
    Coastal
    Mountains
    Piedmont
    USDA Plant Hardiness Zone:
    4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b
  • Fruit:
    Fruit Color:
    Brown/Copper
    Gold/Yellow
    Display/Harvest Time:
    Fall
    Fruit Length:
    1-3 inches
    Fruit Description:
    Brown yellow green nut with fleshy hust. Displays in October.
  • Flowers:
    Flower Color:
    Gold/Yellow
    Green
    Flower Inflorescence:
    Catkin
    Flower Bloom Time:
    Spring
    Flower Size:
    3-6 inches
    Flower Description:
    Single-stemmed catkin 2 ½ to 5 ½ in long male flowers and short spiked near twig end yellow-green in color female flowers appearing from April to May.
  • Leaves:
    Woody Plant Leaf Characteristics:
    Deciduous
    Leaf Color:
    Green
    Leaf Type:
    Compound (Pinnately , Bipinnately, Palmately)
    Leaf Arrangement:
    Alternate
    Leaf Shape:
    Lanceolate
    Ovate
    Leaf Margin:
    Lobed
    Serrate
    Hairs Present:
    No
    Leaf Length:
    > 6 inches
    Leaf Description:
    24" 10-24 leaflets ovate-lanceolate finely serrate. 3-lobed leaf scar resembling a monkey face. Leaves drop sporadically during the season.
  • Bark:
    Bark Color:
    Black
    Dark Brown
    Light Brown
    Surface/Attachment:
    Furrowed
    Ridges
    Bark Plate Shape:
    Diamond
    Bark Description:
    Brown ridged and furrowed with rough diamond pattern bark
  • Stem:
    Stem Is Aromatic:
    No
  • Landscape:
    Landscape Theme:
    Butterfly Garden
    Native Garden
    Attracts:
    Butterflies
    Small Mammals