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Celtis sinensis

Phonetic Spelling
SEL-tis sy-NEN-sis
Description

Chinese Hackberry is a rapidly growing, flowering, deciduous tree in the hemp family reaching 40 to 50 feet high and wide at maturity with a round, spreading crown. In its native Asia, it can be found on the lowland and hills of Japan and the roadsides and slopes of China. These trees thrive in hot summers and sunlight; lack of sun can cause the wood to not fully ripen making them subject to die-back in winter. Under optimum conditions, Chinese Hackberry are very long-lived. The tree suckers, but it primarily naturalizes by seed dispersal. It can be invasive in some environments and has been declared a noxious weed in parts of South Africa and Australia. It is not considered invasive in the United States. The species name is Greek for Chinese.

While it tolerates partial shade and poor soil, it prefers to be grown in full sun in moist, well-drained soil that is high in organic material.  It will self-seed easily or you can propagate it through stem cuttings.  This tough plant tolerates drought, wind, urban conditions, dry, wet, and poor soils. 
 

Diseases, Insect Pests, and Other Plant Problems:

Witches’ broom (dwarfed, dense, contorted twig clusters at the branch ends) is common in some areas.

See this plant in the following landscape:
Cultivars / Varieties:
'Green Cascade'
Tags:
#deciduous#drought tolerant#wildlife plant#moths#flowering tree#air pollution tolerant#nighttime garden#self-seeding#pollinator plant#larval host plant#deciduous tree#urban conditions tolerant#wet soils tolerant#dry soils tolerant#butterfly friendly#moth larvae#question mark butterfly#hackberry emperor butterfly
 
Cultivars / Varieties:
'Green Cascade'
Tags:
#deciduous#drought tolerant#wildlife plant#moths#flowering tree#air pollution tolerant#nighttime garden#self-seeding#pollinator plant#larval host plant#deciduous tree#urban conditions tolerant#wet soils tolerant#dry soils tolerant#butterfly friendly#moth larvae#question mark butterfly#hackberry emperor butterfly
  • Attributes:
    Genus:
    Celtis
    Species:
    sinensis
    Family:
    Cannabaceae
    Life Cycle:
    Perennial
    Woody
    Recommended Propagation Strategy:
    Seed
    Stem Cutting
    Country Or Region Of Origin:
    East Asia, China, Japan, and Korea
    Distribution:
    Australia
    Wildlife Value:
    This plant supports Hackberry Emperor (Asterocampa celtis) and Question Mark Butterfly (Polygonia interrogationis) larvae. Questionmark butterflies have an interesting life cycles: overwintered adult Question Mark butterflies lay eggs from spring until the end of May. These will appear as summer adults from May-September, laying eggs that then develop into the winter adult form. The winter adults appear in late August and shelter for the winter starting the cycle all over again. Adult Question Mark butterflies feed on rotting fruit, tree sap, dung, and carrion only visiting flowers for feeding when absolutely necessary.
    Dimensions:
    Height: 15 ft. 0 in. - 60 ft. 0 in.
    Width: 15 ft. 0 in. - 50 ft. 0 in.
  • Whole Plant Traits:
    Plant Type:
    Tree
    Woody Plant Leaf Characteristics:
    Deciduous
    Semi-evergreen
    Habit/Form:
    Broad
    Rounded
    Spreading
    Growth Rate:
    Rapid
    Maintenance:
    Medium
  • Cultural Conditions:
    Light:
    Full sun (6 or more hours of direct sunlight a day)
    Partial Shade (Direct sunlight only part of the day, 2-6 hours)
    Soil Texture:
    High Organic Matter
    Loam (Silt)
    Sand
    Soil Drainage:
    Good Drainage
    Moist
    Occasionally Dry
    Occasionally Wet
    USDA Plant Hardiness Zone:
    7a, 7b, 8b, 8a, 9a, 9b, 10a, 10b, 11b, 11a
  • Fruit:
    Fruit Color:
    Green
    Orange
    Red/Burgundy
    Fruit Value To Gardener:
    Showy
    Display/Harvest Time:
    Fall
    Fruit Type:
    Drupe
    Fruit Length:
    < 1 inch
    Fruit Width:
    < 1 inch
    Fruit Description:
    Female flowers are followed by globose drupes to 1/3 of an inch long) which have stalks about the same length as the leaf stalks. Immature fruits are green, but mature to orange before finally turning reddish-brown in fall.
  • Flowers:
    Flower Color:
    Green
    Flower Inflorescence:
    Insignificant
    Flower Value To Gardener:
    Showy
    Flower Bloom Time:
    Spring
    Flower Description:
    Inconspicuous monoecious greenish flowers bloom from the leaf axils and stem bases from March to May.
  • Leaves:
    Woody Plant Leaf Characteristics:
    Deciduous
    Semi-evergreen
    Leaf Color:
    Green
    Leaf Feel:
    Glossy
    Leaf Value To Gardener:
    Showy
    Deciduous Leaf Fall Color:
    Gold/Yellow
    Leaf Shape:
    Elliptical
    Ovate
    Hairs Present:
    Yes
    Leaf Length:
    3-6 inches
    Leaf Description:
    Pointed, round-toothed green leaves (2 to 5 inches long) are dark and glossy above but paler and somewhat hairy beneath with rounded to obliquely truncate bases. Leaves turn yellow in fall. Like other hackberries, the leaves have three prominent veins. The bases are a little less uneven than native species.
  • Bark:
    Bark Color:
    Light Brown
    Light Gray
    Surface/Attachment:
    Smooth
    Bark Description:
    Mature trees have smooth gray to gray-brown bark.
  • Stem:
    Stem Is Aromatic:
    No
  • Landscape:
    Landscape Theme:
    Butterfly Garden
    Nighttime Garden
    Pollinator Garden
    Attracts:
    Butterflies
    Moths
    Pollinators
    Songbirds
    Resistance To Challenges:
    Drought
    Poor Soil
    Wind