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Xanthorhiza simplicissima

Common Name(s):

Phonetic Spelling
zan-tho-RISE-uh sim-plih-SISS-ee-mah
Description

Yellowroot is a native deciduous shrub of eastern North America and is found on edges of streams or damp woods in sandy soil under a canopy of dappled sunlight. In NC it is found in the mountains and Piedmont areas. It grows 1-3 feet tall and spreads by suckers. Flowers appear in spring in drooping panicles and fall color is yellow to reds.

It will grow in well-drained moist sandy or clay loams in partial sun to shade. The best fall color occurs with some sun. Use this plant as a ground cover on banks of streams, woodland gardens and naturalized areas.

Cultivars / Varieties:
Tags:
#deciduous#fall color#partial shade#shrub#native shrub#spring flowers#stream banks#native garden#groundcover#maroon flowers
 
Cultivars / Varieties:
Tags:
#deciduous#fall color#partial shade#shrub#native shrub#spring flowers#stream banks#native garden#groundcover#maroon flowers
  • Attributes:
    Genus:
    Xanthorhiza
    Species:
    simplicissima
    Family:
    Ranunculaceae
    Uses (Ethnobotany):
    Native Americans used the roots to make yellow dye
    Life Cycle:
    Woody
    Country Or Region Of Origin:
    Eastern USA
    Distribution:
    AL , CT , FL , GA , KY , LA , MA , MD , ME , MS , NC , NY , OH , PA , SC , TN , TX , VA , WV
    Wildlife Value:
    Provides understory habitat and food for upland game birds, songbirds, and small animals feed on the fruit.
  • Whole Plant Traits:
    Plant Type:
    Native Plant
    Shrub
    Leaf Characteristics:
    Deciduous
    Habit/Form:
    Erect
    Spreading
    Growth Rate:
    Rapid
    Maintenance:
    Medium
    Texture:
    Medium
  • Cultural Conditions:
    Light:
    Dappled Sunlight (Shade through upper canopy all day)
    Full sun (6 or more hours of direct sunlight a day)
    Partial Shade (Direct sunlight only part of the day, 2-6 hours)
    Soil Texture:
    Clay
    Loam (Silt)
    Sand
    Soil pH:
    Acid (<6.0)
    Soil Drainage:
    Good Drainage
    Moist
    Occasionally Dry
    Occasionally Wet
    NC Region:
    Coastal
    Mountains
    Piedmont
    Usda Plant Hardiness Zone:
    3a, 3b, 4a, 4b, 5a, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8b, 9a, 9b
  • Fruit:
    Fruit Color:
    Gold/Yellow
    Fruit Type:
    Follicle
    Fruit Description:
    Fruit is a star-shaped cluster of follicles that dry to yellow.
  • Flowers:
    Flower Color:
    Brown/Copper
    Purple/Lavender
    Flower Inflorescence:
    Panicle
    Flower Bloom Time:
    Spring
    Flower Shape:
    Star
    Flower Petals:
    4-5 petals/rays
    Flower Description:
    Brownish purple star-shaped flowers with 5 sepals (no petals) on crowded 2-8 inch long terminal clusters in spring.
  • Leaves:
    Leaf Characteristics:
    Deciduous
    Leaf Color:
    Green
    Leaf Feel:
    Glossy
    Deciduous Leaf Fall Color:
    Gold/Yellow
    Purple/Lavender
    Red/Burgundy
    Leaf Type:
    Compound (Pinnately , Bipinnately, Palmately)
    Leaf Arrangement:
    Alternate
    Leaf Margin:
    Lobed
    Serrate
    Hairs Present:
    No
    Leaf Length:
    3-6 inches
    Leaf Description:
    Alternate, compound pinnate leaves with 3 to 5 leaflets that are glossy, green and 1-3 inches long. Margins are lobed and toothed. Fall color is yellow to reddish-purple.
  • Bark:
    Bark Color:
    Dark Brown
    Dark Gray
    Bark Description:
    Thin and smooth brownish-gray bark
  • Stem:
    Stem Is Aromatic:
    No
    Stem Buds:
    Smooth/Hairless
  • Landscape:
    Landscape Location:
    Naturalized Area
    Pond
    Slope/Bank
    Landscape Theme:
    Native Garden
    Rain Garden
    Design Feature:
    Small groups