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Quercus shumardii

Phonetic Spelling
KWER-kus shoo-MARD-ee-eye
This plant has low severity poison characteristics.
See below
Description

Shumard Oak is a deciduous tree that may grow 70 to 100 feet tall. The tree has alternate leaves with 5 to 9 lobes with coarse bristle tips and deep sinuses that extend more than halfway to the mid-rib. The leaves turn russet-red in fall. The bark develops dark, deep furrows, with light gray to white, scaly ridge tops. In spring, light green, cylindrical, male flower clusters and single, female spikes mature. The tree produces a 3/4- to 1.25-inch acorn with a bowl-shaped, scaly cap that covers less than 1/3 the nut. The acorn requires two growing seasons to reach maturity.

The Southern Red Oak is found in moist upland forests and stream banks. It is a long-lived tree that tolerates moist to dry soils and occasional flooding. This tree is moderately salt tolerant. It prefers sand and moist soil. It is adaptable to pH ranges, fairly easy to transplant and fast-growing for an oak. Drought tolerance makes it good for urban uses. A good shade tree for large yards, parks, etc. Attracts a variety of wildlife.

It looks a lot like northern red oak (Quercus rubra) but its leaves have fewer and deeper lobes. This species also seems to be more tolerant of heavy clay soils than northern red oak. 

Insects, Diseases, or Other Plant Problems: This tree is generally a durable and long-lived tree, but is susceptible to a large number of potential diseases and insect pests, including anthracnose, canker, leaf spot, rust, blight, galls, caterpillars, borers, leaf miners, oak lace bug and oak mite. This tree is highly susceptible to oak wilt. Chlorosis (yellowing of the leaves while the veins remain green) often occurs when soils are not properly acidic. Can be difficult to transplant and establish. It is highly susceptible to oak wilt.

Cultivars / Varieties:
Tags:
#cultivars#butterflies#deciduous#fall color#shade tree#rain garden#drought tolerant#wildlife plant#native tree#salt tolerant#host plant#fall interest#street tree#host#small mammals#moist soil#food source#low flammability#NC native#black bears#wild turkeys#deer resistant#blue jays#acorns#host tree#fire resistant#oak tree#edible fruits#edible garden#Braham Arboretum#food source fall
 
Cultivars / Varieties:
Tags:
#cultivars#butterflies#deciduous#fall color#shade tree#rain garden#drought tolerant#wildlife plant#native tree#salt tolerant#host plant#fall interest#street tree#host#small mammals#moist soil#food source#low flammability#NC native#black bears#wild turkeys#deer resistant#blue jays#acorns#host tree#fire resistant#oak tree#edible fruits#edible garden#Braham Arboretum#food source fall
  • Attributes:
    Genus:
    Quercus
    Species:
    shumardii
    Family:
    Fagaceae
    Uses (Ethnobotany):
    Used to make flooring, furniture, interior trim, veneer, cabinetry, and lumber. Acorns have been ground and used as flour, and coffee.
    Life Cycle:
    Perennial
    Woody
    Recommended Propagation Strategy:
    Seed
    Country Or Region Of Origin:
    Southeastern United States
    Distribution:
    Pennsylvania south through Florida west to Texas north through Oklahoma, Nebraska, Missouri, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, and through Quebec
    Fire Risk Rating:
    low flammability
    Wildlife Value:
    It is a host plant for Banded hairstreak, Edward's hairstreak, Gray hairstreak, White-M hairstreak, Horace's duskywing and Juvenal's duskywing butterflies.  Its acorns are eaten by woodpeckers, blue jays, small mammals, wild turkey, white-tailed deer, and black bears.
    Play Value:
    Edible fruit
    Wildlife Food Source
    Particularly Resistant To (Insects/Diseases/Other Problems):
    Resistant to fire and moderately resistant to damage from deer.
    Edibility:
    Acorns are edible after the tannin is either leached or boiled out.
    Dimensions:
    Height: 40 ft. 0 in. - 100 ft. 0 in.
    Width: 30 ft. 0 in. - 40 ft. 0 in.
  • Whole Plant Traits:
    Plant Type:
    Edible
    Native Plant
    Poisonous
    Tree
    Leaf Characteristics:
    Deciduous
    Habit/Form:
    Open
    Pyramidal
    Rounded
    Spreading
    Growth Rate:
    Rapid
    Maintenance:
    Medium
    Texture:
    Medium
  • Cultural Conditions:
    Light:
    Full sun (6 or more hours of direct sunlight a day)
    Partial Shade (Direct sunlight only part of the day, 2-6 hours)
    Soil Texture:
    Clay
    Loam (Silt)
    Sand
    Soil pH:
    Acid (<6.0)
    Neutral (6.0-8.0)
    Soil Drainage:
    Good Drainage
    Moist
    Occasionally Wet
    Available Space To Plant:
    24-60 feet
    more than 60 feet
    NC Region:
    Coastal
    Mountains
    Piedmont
    Usda Plant Hardiness Zone:
    5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b
  • Fruit:
    Fruit Color:
    Brown/Copper
    Fruit Value To Gardener:
    Edible
    Display/Harvest Time:
    Fall
    Fruit Type:
    Nut
    Fruit Length:
    < 1 inch
    Fruit Width:
    < 1 inch
    Fruit Description:
    Egg-shaped acorns are 3/4 to 1 inch long with a broadly rounded apex and a flat base. The cup is a shallow, flattened, thick, saucer-shaped cup with pubescent scales. They mature in the second year.
  • Flowers:
    Flower Color:
    Brown/Copper
    Cream/Tan
    Gold/Yellow
    Green
    Flower Inflorescence:
    Catkin
    Insignificant
    Flower Bloom Time:
    Spring
    Flower Description:
    Male and female flowers are borne in separate catkins. Pollen flowers are in drooping, elongated clusters.
  • Leaves:
    Leaf Characteristics:
    Deciduous
    Leaf Color:
    Brown/Copper
    Gold/Yellow
    Green
    Leaf Value To Gardener:
    Showy
    Deciduous Leaf Fall Color:
    Brown/Copper
    Red/Burgundy
    Leaf Type:
    Simple
    Leaf Arrangement:
    Alternate
    Leaf Shape:
    Elliptical
    Oblanceolate
    Leaf Margin:
    Entire
    Lobed
    Sinuate
    Hairs Present:
    No
    Leaf Length:
    > 6 inches
    Leaf Width:
    3-6 inches
    Leaf Description:
    The 6-8 inch leaves have 2-4 pairs of pointed lobes with soft bristle-like tips. The sinuses reach 1/2- to 3/4 of the distance from lobe tip to midrib. Fall color is reddish-brown to scarlet.
  • Bark:
    Bark Color:
    Dark Gray
    Light Gray
    Surface/Attachment:
    Furrowed
    Ridges
    Smooth
    Bark Description:
    The bark is thick, smooth and grayish, becoming furrowed into ridges and darker gray. The trunk of older trees is heavily buttressed.
  • Stem:
    Stem Color:
    Brown/Copper
    Green
    Stem Is Aromatic:
    No
    Stem Surface:
    Polished
    Stem Description:
    Young twigs are olive green and shiny, the older branches are brownish. The buds are light and occur most frequently on branch ends.
  • Landscape:
    Landscape Location:
    Lawn
    Naturalized Area
    Landscape Theme:
    Butterfly Garden
    Native Garden
    Rain Garden
    Design Feature:
    Shade Tree
    Specimen
    Street Tree
    Attracts:
    Butterflies
    Resistance To Challenges:
    Deer
    Drought
    Fire
    Salt
    Wet Soil
    Wind
    Problems:
    Frequent Disease Problems
    Frequent Insect Problems
    Poisonous to Humans
  • Poisonous to Humans:
    Poison Severity:
    Low
    Poison Symptoms:
    Stomach pain, constipation and later bloody diarrhea, excessive thirst and urination if young leaves and raw acorns are eaten.
    Poison Toxic Principle:
    Gallotannins, quercitrin, and quercitin.
    Causes Contact Dermatitis:
    No
    Poison Part:
    Fruits
    Leaves