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White Bergamot Monarda clinopodia

Other Common Name(s):

Description

White Bergamot is a member of the mint family and is native to eastern and central USA. In NC it is found primarily in the mountains in moist woods, thickets, ravines, lightly shaded mountain hillsides, on the edge of woodlands, or on lightly shaded meadows.  In the states of New Jersey and New York, it is considered to be endangered. 

It is an excellent pollinator plant and attracts bee, bumblebees, butterflies, and hummingbirds. This species is deer resistant, fast-growing and may be somewhat weedy. The flower is mildly fragrant, somewhat showy and blooms from May to September with the blooms lasting about 2-3 weeks. It may be propagated by seeds in the fall, winter, or early spring. Rootball division is best done in the spring as new growth emerges.

Plant in full sun to partial shade in moist well-drained soils. Use in a naturalized area, at woodland edges, or in native/pollinator gardens. This plant will do best in the cooler summers of the mountains.

Problems: The plant is mostly free of pests and disease. It has good powdery mildew resistance but allow good airflow around it.

The genus, Monarda, was named for a 16th-century physician and botanist, Nicolas Bautista Monardes of Spain. Although he never came to North America, he studied medicinal plants.

See this plant in the following landscape:
Cultivars / Varieties:
Tags:
#hummingbirds#perennial#white flowers#wildlife plant#weedy#meadow#summer flowers#herbaceous perennial#mountains#pollinator plant#naturalized area#NC Native Pollinator Plant#nectar plant mid-summer#herb#pollinator garden#woodland
 
Cultivars / Varieties:
Tags:
#hummingbirds#perennial#white flowers#wildlife plant#weedy#meadow#summer flowers#herbaceous perennial#mountains#pollinator plant#naturalized area#NC Native Pollinator Plant#nectar plant mid-summer#herb#pollinator garden#woodland
  • Attributes:
    Genus:
    Monarda
    Species:
    clinopodia
    Family:
    Lamiaceae
    Uses (Ethnobotany):
    Native Americans used the plant to treat a variety of ailments.
    Life Cycle:
    Perennial
    Recommended Propagation Strategy:
    Division
    Seed
    Country Or Region Of Origin:
    Eastern U.S.A
    Distribution:
    AL , CT , DC , DE , IL , IN , KY , MA , MD , MI , MO , NC , NJ , NY , OH , PA , RI , SC , TN , VA , VT , WV
    Wildlife Value:
    Attractive to bees, bumblebees, butterflies, and hummingbirds for nectar and pollination.
    Play Value:
    Attracts Pollinators
    Wildlife Food Source
    Edibility:
    Fresh or dried leaves and flower heads of this plant may be brewed to make tea.
    Dimensions:
    Height: 3 ft. 0 in. - 6 ft. 0 in.
    Width: 2 ft. 0 in. - 3 ft. 0 in.
  • Whole Plant Traits:
    Plant Type:
    Native Plant
    Perennial
    Habit/Form:
    Erect
    Growth Rate:
    Rapid
    Maintenance:
    Low
    Texture:
    Medium
  • Cultural Conditions:
    Light:
    Full sun (6 or more hours of direct sunlight a day)
    Partial Shade (Direct sunlight only part of the day, 2-6 hours)
    Soil Texture:
    Clay
    Loam (Silt)
    Sand
    Soil pH:
    Acid (<6.0)
    Alkaline (>8.0)
    Neutral (6.0-8.0)
    Soil Drainage:
    Good Drainage
    Moist
    Available Space To Plant:
    3 feet-6 feet
    NC Region:
    Mountains
    Piedmont
    USDA Plant Hardiness Zone:
    5b, 5a, 6b, 6a, 7b, 7a, 8b, 8a
  • Fruit:
    Fruit Color:
    Brown/Copper
    Display/Harvest Time:
    Summer
    Fruit Type:
    Capsule
    Fruit Length:
    < 1 inch
    Fruit Width:
    < 1 inch
    Fruit Description:
    Once the flower fades and the petals drop off, a brown seed head develops. It is best to allow the seed heads to dry on the plant and then collect the seeds. The seeds are brown, smooth, and very small.
  • Flowers:
    Flower Color:
    Purple/Lavender
    White
    Flower Inflorescence:
    Head
    Flower Value To Gardener:
    Fragrant
    Showy
    Flower Bloom Time:
    Fall
    Spring
    Summer
    Flower Shape:
    Tubular
    Flower Petals:
    2-3 rays/petals
    Tepals
    Flower Size:
    1-3 inches
    Flower Description:
    The flower is mildly fragrant, and the flower head grows at the end of the unbranched or branched stems. The flower head is 2 inches wide and has many individual blossoms. The bloom is about 1 inch long, and its color is white to creamy white with purple spots on the lower lip and has a narrower upper lip. There are 4 tepals that fuse into a pubescent tube from which 1-2 stamens and the pistils extend. Can bloom May to Sept.
  • Leaves:
    Leaf Color:
    Green
    Leaf Value To Gardener:
    Edible
    Leaf Type:
    Simple
    Leaf Arrangement:
    Opposite
    Leaf Shape:
    Ovate
    Leaf Margin:
    Dentate
    Hairs Present:
    No
    Leaf Length:
    3-6 inches
    Leaf Width:
    1-3 inches
    Leaf Description:
    The leaves are green, simple, opposite in arrangement, ovate shaped, veined, and have shallowly toothed margins. The leaf measures 5-6 inches long and 1.5 inches wide.
  • Stem:
    Stem Color:
    Green
    Red/Burgundy
    Stem Is Aromatic:
    No
    Stem Form:
    Straight
    Stem Surface:
    Hairy (pubescent)
    Stem Description:
    The stem and petioles are red and smooth. There are a few hairs on the upper petioles. The upper stem may be slightly hairy.
  • Landscape:
    Landscape Location:
    Meadow
    Naturalized Area
    Woodland
    Landscape Theme:
    Native Garden
    Pollinator Garden
    Design Feature:
    Border
    Attracts:
    Bees
    Butterflies
    Hummingbirds
    Resistance To Challenges:
    Deer
    Problems:
    Weedy