Plant DetailShow Menu

Corylus cornuta

Common Name(s):

Phonetic Spelling
kor-EE-lus kor-NOO-tuh
Description

Beaked Hazelnut is a deciduous shrub found in the dry rocky woodlands, forests, and swamps in Canada and the U.S.A. In NC it is found in the Piedmont and mountain areas. It can form thickets if the root suckers are not removed. They are grown commercially for the nut and used in wildlife preserves to provide food. 

Separate male and female flowers bloom and early spring and are followed by an edible nut that matures in fall. It is enclosed in a husk that extends outward to form a beak giving it the common name.

This plant prefers acidic moist soil with good drainage in full sun to partial shade. Due to its thicket-forming habit, it is best used in naturalized sites or to form a hedge or barrier.

See this plant in the following landscape:
Cultivars / Varieties:
  • var. californica
    Found on the western part of the country
var. californica
Tags:
#deciduous#deciduous shrub#native shrub#barrier#NC native#spreading#thickets#naturalized area#food source fall#food source herbage#food source hard mast fruit#FACU Piedmont Mountains#FACU Coastal
 
Cultivars / Varieties:
  • var. californica
    Found on the western part of the country
var. californica
Tags:
#deciduous#deciduous shrub#native shrub#barrier#NC native#spreading#thickets#naturalized area#food source fall#food source herbage#food source hard mast fruit#FACU Piedmont Mountains#FACU Coastal
  • Attributes:
    Genus:
    Corylus
    Species:
    cornuta
    Family:
    Betulaceae
    Uses (Ethnobotany):
    Native Americans used the nuts for food, the wood for arrows and other items and the shoots were twisted into rope. It was also used medicinally.
    Life Cycle:
    Woody
    Country Or Region Of Origin:
    Canada, U.S.A.
    Wildlife Value:
    Fruits are eaten by squirrels, deer, grouse and pheasant.
    Edibility:
    Nuts are edible
    Dimensions:
    Height: 4 ft. 0 in. - 14 ft. 0 in.
    Width: 6 ft. 0 in. - 12 ft. 0 in.
  • Whole Plant Traits:
    Plant Type:
    Native Plant
    Shrub
    Woody Plant Leaf Characteristics:
    Deciduous
    Habit/Form:
    Spreading
    Maintenance:
    High
  • Cultural Conditions:
    Light:
    Full sun (6 or more hours of direct sunlight a day)
    Partial Shade (Direct sunlight only part of the day, 2-6 hours)
    Soil Texture:
    Clay
    Loam (Silt)
    Sand
    Soil pH:
    Acid (<6.0)
    Soil Drainage:
    Good Drainage
    Moist
    Occasionally Dry
    NC Region:
    Coastal
    Mountains
    Piedmont
    USDA Plant Hardiness Zone:
    4a, 4b, 5b, 5a, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8b, 8a
  • Fruit:
    Fruit Value To Gardener:
    Edible
    Display/Harvest Time:
    Fall
    Fruit Type:
    Nut
    Fruit Length:
    < 1 inch
    Fruit Width:
    < 1 inch
    Fruit Description:
    Fruit on female plants is a hard edible nut up to 1/2 inch long enclosed in a leafy, hairy, light green husk that extends beyond the nut by at least one inch to form a beak. Displays from September to October
  • Flowers:
    Flower Color:
    Gold/Yellow
    Red/Burgundy
    Flower Inflorescence:
    Catkin
    Insignificant
    Flower Bloom Time:
    Spring
    Flower Description:
    Male flowers are yellowish drooping catkins and the tiny red female flowers are mostly concealed in bracts. Blooms from February to April
  • Leaves:
    Woody Plant Leaf Characteristics:
    Deciduous
    Leaf Shape:
    Elliptical
    Leaf Margin:
    Doubly Serrate
    Hairs Present:
    Yes
    Leaf Description:
    Up to 4-inch long oval to nearly round leaves have doubly serrated margins and rounded or heart-shaped bases. They are bright green and usually hairy along the veins.
  • Stem:
    Stem Color:
    Brown/Copper
    Stem Is Aromatic:
    No
    Stem Surface:
    Hairy (pubescent)
    Stem Description:
    The twigs are light brown, sometimes with glandular hairs.
  • Landscape:
    Landscape Location:
    Naturalized Area
    Landscape Theme:
    Edible Garden
    Design Feature:
    Hedge
    Attracts:
    Butterflies
    Small Mammals
    Songbirds