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NC-1 Pawpaw Asimina triloba 'NC-1'

Phonetic Spelling
ah-SIH-min-ah try-LO-buh
This plant has low severity poison characteristics.
See below
Description

Pawpaw, is a native, understory deciduous tree in the Annonaceae family.  It typically appears in a cluster in alluvial, or other moist, nutrient-rich forests.  It is a slow-growing tree that needs several years to bear fruit. The cultivar, 'NC-1', is a hybrid cultivar originally from Canada and is noted for its early-ripening fruit and a high pulp to seed ratio, which means more edible fruit.

It typically grows best in well-drained, slightly acidic, fertile soil. The leaves are alternate, produce a pungent odor when crushed, and display a bright yellow fall color. The bark is smooth with wart-like lenticels. In spring, 6-petaled, purplish-brown flowers mature. The tree produces a 2.5- to 6-inch fruit that matures in late summer to early fall. The fruit resembles a short, fat banana in size and taste and is the largest fruit native to North America. To obtain cross-pollination, plant more than one genetically different pawpaw within 15 feet of each other (pollinizers). Hand pollination can lead to heavy fruit set.

Wildlife eagerly seeks out the fruits and often beat humans to the harvest.

Insects, Diseases, and Other Plant Problems: No known disease or insect issues. The pawpaw tree produces self-defensive compounds so that insect pests are usually not a problem.

VIDEO Created by Elisabeth Meyer for "Edibles, Bulbs, and Houseplants" a plant identification course offered in partnership with Longwood Gardens.   

More information on Asimina triloba.

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Cultivars / Varieties:
Tags:
#fragrant#deciduous#small tree#rain garden#shade garden#fall interest#beneficial insects#understory tree#showy fruits#fire low flammability#pollinator plant#Braham Arboretum#larval host plant#food source summer#food source fall#Coastal FAC#garden walls#bird friendly#pollinizer#food source soft mast fruit#butterfly friendly#ebh#ebh-fn#Audubon#colonizing#woodland garden#zebra swallowtail butterfly#paw paw#wildlife friendly
 
Cultivars / Varieties:
Tags:
#fragrant#deciduous#small tree#rain garden#shade garden#fall interest#beneficial insects#understory tree#showy fruits#fire low flammability#pollinator plant#Braham Arboretum#larval host plant#food source summer#food source fall#Coastal FAC#garden walls#bird friendly#pollinizer#food source soft mast fruit#butterfly friendly#ebh#ebh-fn#Audubon#colonizing#woodland garden#zebra swallowtail butterfly#paw paw#wildlife friendly
  • Attributes:
    Genus:
    Asimina
    Species:
    triloba
    Family:
    Annonaceae
    Uses (Ethnobotany):
    Early Americans made yellow dye from pulp of the ripened fruit.
    Life Cycle:
    Perennial
    Woody
    Distribution:
    Washington south to New Mexico, Nebraska, Iowa. Parts of Wisconsin, Michigan east to Maine, south to North Carolina and Florida.
    Fire Risk Rating:
    low flammability
    Wildlife Value:
    Its flowers are pollinated by flies and beetles. Its fleshy fruits are eaten by songbirds, wild turkeys, squirrels, raccoons, opossums, black bears, and foxes. Pawpaws are larval host plants for the Zebra Swallowtail (Eurytides marcellus). The adult butterflies lay eggs in the north during two flights between April and August and in the south between March and December.
    Particularly Resistant To (Insects/Diseases/Other Problems):
    Resistant to fire. Moderately resistant to deer damage. Heat tolerant.
    Edibility:
    'NC-1' produces large yellow fruit with yellow flesh. Fewer seeds than most cultivars with a great taste and not that bitter. Early ripening.
    Dimensions:
    Height: 15 ft. 0 in. - 20 ft. 0 in.
    Width: 15 ft. 0 in. - 20 ft. 0 in.
  • Whole Plant Traits:
    Plant Type:
    Edible
    Perennial
    Poisonous
    Shrub
    Tree
    Woody Plant Leaf Characteristics:
    Deciduous
    Habit/Form:
    Erect
    Pyramidal
    Growth Rate:
    Slow
    Maintenance:
    Low
    Texture:
    Medium
  • Cultural Conditions:
    Light:
    Dappled Sunlight (Shade through upper canopy all day)
    Full sun (6 or more hours of direct sunlight a day)
    Partial Shade (Direct sunlight only part of the day, 2-6 hours)
    Soil Texture:
    High Organic Matter
    Soil pH:
    Acid (<6.0)
    Soil Drainage:
    Good Drainage
    Moist
    Occasionally Wet
    Available Space To Plant:
    12-24 feet
    NC Region:
    Coastal
    Mountains
    Piedmont
    USDA Plant Hardiness Zone:
    5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b
  • Fruit:
    Fruit Color:
    Brown/Copper
    Cream/Tan
    Gold/Yellow
    Green
    Fruit Value To Gardener:
    Edible
    Display/Harvest Time:
    Fall
    Summer
    Fruit Type:
    Berry
    Fruit Length:
    > 3 inches
    Fruit Width:
    > 3 inches
    Fruit Description:
    Large yellow fruit with yellow flesh. The fruits have fewer seeds than most cultivars and have a great taste. Early ripening.
  • Flowers:
    Flower Color:
    Brown/Copper
    Purple/Lavender
    Flower Value To Gardener:
    Fragrant
    Flower Bloom Time:
    Spring
    Flower Shape:
    Cup
    Flower Petals:
    6 petals/rays
    Flower Size:
    1-3 inches
    Flower Description:
    The burgundy flowers bloom in spring but are not showy. They are purplish brown with 6 petals and are 1 to 1.5 inches in diameter. They have a foul odor as they are pollinated by flies.
  • Leaves:
    Woody Plant Leaf Characteristics:
    Deciduous
    Leaf Color:
    Green
    Leaf Value To Gardener:
    Showy
    Deciduous Leaf Fall Color:
    Gold/Yellow
    Leaf Type:
    Simple
    Leaf Arrangement:
    Alternate
    Leaf Shape:
    Oblong
    Obovate
    Leaf Margin:
    Entire
    Hairs Present:
    No
    Leaf Length:
    > 6 inches
    Leaf Width:
    1-3 inches
    Leaf Description:
    Alternate, simple, obovate to oblong 6-12 inches long 2-3 inches wide with a green pepper odor when crushed. The leaves are in two ranks and hang pendulously from the stem. The leaf underside is pale and glaucous.
  • Bark:
    Bark Color:
    Light Brown
    Light Gray
    Surface/Attachment:
    Fissured
    Lenticels
    Scaly
    Bark Description:
    Smooth, brown splotched with wart-like lenticels. Becomes fissured and scaly with age.
  • Stem:
    Stem Color:
    Brown/Copper
    Stem Is Aromatic:
    No
    Stem Bud Scales:
    No scales, covered in hair
    Stem Lenticels:
    Conspicuous
    Stem Surface:
    Corky Ridges
    Stem Description:
    Buds are pubescent with no scales. Young buds and stems are cinnamon brown.
  • Landscape:
    Landscape Location:
    Naturalized Area
    Riparian
    Woodland
    Landscape Theme:
    Butterfly Garden
    Edible Garden
    Pollinator Garden
    Rain Garden
    Design Feature:
    Flowering Tree
    Shade Tree
    Attracts:
    Butterflies
    Pollinators
    Small Mammals
    Songbirds
    Resistance To Challenges:
    Deer
    Fire
    Heat
    Heavy Shade
    Insect Pests
    Problems:
    Contact Dermatitis
    Malodorous
    Poisonous to Humans
  • Poisonous to Humans:
    Poison Severity:
    Low
    Poison Symptoms:
    Seeds and unripe fruit may cause stomach and intestinal pain. Be sure fruit is ripe before ingesting. Skin irritation from handling fruit.
    Poison Toxic Principle:
    unknown
    Causes Contact Dermatitis:
    Yes
    Poison Part:
    Fruits
    Seeds