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Carolina Hemlock Tsuga caroliniana

Phonetic Spelling
SOO-guh kair-oh-lin-ee-AN-uh
Description

A native tree in the Pinaceae family that grows along cliffs and ridges from the Blue Ridge mountains to northeast Tennessee.  It can grow in partial to full shade and moist, well-drained soil, thriving in the cool, shady areas of your landscape.  It works well as screen and has a rapid growth rate, lending to its use as an ornamental tree.  It is not drought tolerant and will need to be watered regularly, especially in dry conditions.  It needs protection from wind and hot weather to prevent foliage scorching, but is more tolerant of summer heat than T. canadensis, a similar-looking relative.  The trees can be told apart by the length of the leaves and structure of the stems, with T. caroliniana having longer leaves and cones as well as a rough appearance.

This plant is commonly found in western North Carolina.

Insects, Diseases, and Other Plant Problems:  Healthy trees in the right location have few problems. Susceptible to hemlock woolly adelgid. Other insect problems include ambrosia beetle, bagworms, borers, leaf miner, sawfly, and mites.  Potential disease problems for plants in the genus Tusga include needle blight (needles turn yellow and die), canker, rusts and rots.  Foliage may scorch in very hot weather.

See this plant in the following landscape:
Cultivars / Varieties:
Tags:
#evergreen#wildlife plant#shade tolerant#winter interest#playground#NC native#children's garden#native garden#edible seeds#Braham Arboretum#non-toxic for horses#non-toxic for dogs#non-toxic for cats#audubon
 
Cultivars / Varieties:
Tags:
#evergreen#wildlife plant#shade tolerant#winter interest#playground#NC native#children's garden#native garden#edible seeds#Braham Arboretum#non-toxic for horses#non-toxic for dogs#non-toxic for cats#audubon
  • Attributes:
    Genus:
    Tsuga
    Species:
    caroliniana
    Family:
    Pinaceae
    Uses (Ethnobotany):
    This tree was used for medicinal purposes as well as basketry and building material by Cherokee people.
    Life Cycle:
    Woody
    Wildlife Value:
    Seeds are a food source for birds.
    Play Value:
    Pieces Used in Games
    Wildlife Food Source
    Dimensions:
    Height: 30 ft. 0 in. - 70 ft. 0 in.
    Width: 20 ft. 0 in. - 25 ft. 0 in.
  • Whole Plant Traits:
    Plant Type:
    Native Plant
    Tree
    Woody Plant Leaf Characteristics:
    Needled Evergreen
    Habit/Form:
    Dense
    Pyramidal
    Weeping
    Growth Rate:
    Rapid
    Texture:
    Fine
  • Cultural Conditions:
    Light:
    Full sun (6 or more hours of direct sunlight a day)
    Partial Shade (Direct sunlight only part of the day, 2-6 hours)
    Soil Drainage:
    Good Drainage
    Moist
    Available Space To Plant:
    24-60 feet
    more than 60 feet
    NC Region:
    Mountains
    Piedmont
    USDA Plant Hardiness Zone:
    6b, 6a, 7b, 7a
  • Fruit:
    Fruit Color:
    Brown/Copper
    Display/Harvest Time:
    Summer
    Fruit Length:
    1-3 inches
    Fruit Description:
    1 to 1.5 in. cones with narrow scales. Longer than cones from T. canadensis.
  • Flowers:
    Flower Color:
    Insignificant
    Flower Bloom Time:
    Spring
  • Leaves:
    Woody Plant Leaf Characteristics:
    Needled Evergreen
    Leaf Color:
    Green
    White
    Leaf Type:
    Needles
    Leaf Arrangement:
    Whorled
    Leaf Shape:
    Acicular
    Hairs Present:
    No
    Leaf Length:
    < 1 inch
    Leaf Width:
    < 1 inch
    Leaf Description:
    .25 to .75 in. needles radiate around the stem, 2 white strips of stomata on underside. The leaves are longer and more whorled than T. canadensis. Needle like leaves are fairly small, ΒΌ to 3/4th in size with two white stripes located on the underside of the needle. The needles rotate all the way around the stem.
  • Bark:
    Bark Color:
    Light Brown
    Red/Burgundy
    Surface/Attachment:
    Ridges
    Shredding
  • Stem:
    Stem Is Aromatic:
    No
    Stem Description:
    Branches are airy and pendulous.
  • Landscape:
    Landscape Location:
    Recreational Play Area
    Landscape Theme:
    Children's Garden
    Winter Garden
    Attracts:
    Songbirds
    Resistance To Challenges:
    Heavy Shade