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Tsuga caroliniana is often confused with:
Tsuga canadensis Form
Plants that fill a similar niche:
Smilax smallii Form (Moore County, NC)-Early Fall
Tilia americana Tilia americana
Acer rubrum Acer rubrum

Carolina Hemlock Tsuga caroliniana

Phonetic Spelling
SOO-guh kair-oh-lin-ee-AN-uh
Description

A native tree in the Pinaceae family that grows along cliffs and ridges from the Blue Ridge mountains to northeast Tennessee.  It can grow in partial to full shade and moist, well-drained soil, thriving in the cool, shady areas of your landscape.  It works well as a screen in partly shady areas, lending to its use as an ornamental tree.  It is not drought tolerant and will need to be watered regularly, especially in dry conditions.  It needs protection from wind and hot weather to prevent foliage scorching but is more tolerant of summer heat than T. canadensis, a similar-looking relative.  The trees can be told apart by the length of the leaves and structure of the stems, with T. caroliniana having longer leaves and cones as well as a rough appearance.

This plant is found in isolated patches in western North Carolina and is becoming rare due to the hemlock woolly adelgid

Insects, Diseases, and Other Plant Problems:  Healthy trees in the right location have few problems. Susceptible to hemlock woolly adelgid. Other insect problems include ambrosia beetle, bagworms, borers, leaf miner, sawfly, and mites.  Potential disease problems for plants in the genus Tusga include needle blight (needles turn yellow and die), canker, rusts and rots.  Foliage may scorch in very hot weather.

See this plant in the following landscape:
Cultivars / Varieties:
Tags:
#evergreen#wildlife plant#shade garden#winter interest#playground#NC native#children's garden#native garden#edible seeds#screening#Braham Arboretum#bird friendly#partial shade tolerant#non-toxic for horses#non-toxic for dogs#non-toxic for cats#Audubon
 
Cultivars / Varieties:
Tags:
#evergreen#wildlife plant#shade garden#winter interest#playground#NC native#children's garden#native garden#edible seeds#screening#Braham Arboretum#bird friendly#partial shade tolerant#non-toxic for horses#non-toxic for dogs#non-toxic for cats#Audubon
  • Attributes:
    Genus:
    Tsuga
    Species:
    caroliniana
    Family:
    Pinaceae
    Uses (Ethnobotany):
    This tree was used for medicinal purposes as well as basketry and building material by Cherokee people.
    Life Cycle:
    Woody
    Recommended Propagation Strategy:
    Seed
    Wildlife Value:
    Seeds are a food source for birds.
    Play Value:
    Pieces Used in Games
    Screening
    Shade
    Wildlife Cover/Habitat
    Wildlife Food Source
    Dimensions:
    Height: 30 ft. 0 in. - 70 ft. 0 in.
    Width: 20 ft. 0 in. - 25 ft. 0 in.
  • Whole Plant Traits:
    Plant Type:
    Native Plant
    Tree
    Woody Plant Leaf Characteristics:
    Needled Evergreen
    Habit/Form:
    Dense
    Pyramidal
    Weeping
    Growth Rate:
    Slow
    Maintenance:
    Low
    Texture:
    Fine
  • Cultural Conditions:
    Light:
    Full sun (6 or more hours of direct sunlight a day)
    Partial Shade (Direct sunlight only part of the day, 2-6 hours)
    Soil Texture:
    Clay
    Loam (Silt)
    Sand
    Soil Drainage:
    Good Drainage
    Moist
    Available Space To Plant:
    24-60 feet
    more than 60 feet
    NC Region:
    Mountains
    Piedmont
    USDA Plant Hardiness Zone:
    6b, 6a, 7b, 7a
  • Fruit:
    Fruit Color:
    Brown/Copper
    Green
    Display/Harvest Time:
    Fall
    Summer
    Fruit Length:
    1-3 inches
    Fruit Width:
    1-3 inches
    Fruit Description:
    1 to 1.5 in. cones with narrow scales. Longer than cones from T. canadensis. Young cones are green and mature to light brown with scales opening at right angles.
  • Flowers:
    Flower Color:
    Insignificant
    Flower Bloom Time:
    Spring
  • Leaves:
    Woody Plant Leaf Characteristics:
    Needled Evergreen
    Leaf Color:
    Green
    White
    Leaf Value To Gardener:
    Fragrant
    Long-lasting
    Leaf Type:
    Needles
    Leaf Arrangement:
    Whorled
    Leaf Shape:
    Acicular
    Linear
    Leaf Margin:
    Entire
    Hairs Present:
    No
    Leaf Length:
    < 1 inch
    Leaf Width:
    < 1 inch
    Leaf Description:
    .25 to .75 in. needles radiate around the stem, 2 white strips of stomata on the underside. The leaves are longer and more whorled than T. canadensis. Smell of tangerines when crushed
  • Bark:
    Bark Color:
    Light Brown
    Red/Burgundy
    Surface/Attachment:
    Ridges
    Scaly
    Bark Description:
    The bark is reddish-brown and becomes fissured between scaly ridges
  • Stem:
    Stem Color:
    Brown/Copper
    Orange
    Red/Burgundy
    Stem Is Aromatic:
    No
    Stem Surface:
    Hairy (pubescent)
    Stem Description:
    Stout branches are horizontal and often pendulous. Shoots are red-brown to orange-brown and finely hairy, buds small and round.
  • Landscape:
    Landscape Location:
    Recreational Play Area
    Slope/Bank
    Woodland
    Landscape Theme:
    Children's Garden
    Shade Garden
    Winter Garden
    Design Feature:
    Barrier
    Hedge
    Screen/Privacy
    Attracts:
    Songbirds
    Resistance To Challenges:
    Heavy Shade
    Problems:
    Frequent Insect Problems