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Sessile Trillium Trillium sessile

Phonetic Spelling
TRIL-ee-um SES-sih-lee
This plant has low severity poison characteristics.
See below
Description

Toadshade Trillium is a native perennial found in the eastern United States and the Ozarks in rich, moist woods, in limestone woods, floodplains and along fence rows. In NC it is limited to very rich soils of natural levees and lower slopes along the Roanoke River and is rare in the Coastal Plain.

The stemless flowers have 3 upright maroon petals with a foul smell that attracts flies and beetles for pollination. The flowers are sometimes brownish or yellow-green. The oval to nearly round bracts are mottled in shades of green and fade with age. Bloom time is April-May.

The plant prefers humus-rich moist well-drained soils in part to full shade and will spread by rhizomes to form clumps over time. Use in a woodland setting for naturalizing. It is usually dormant by mid-summer, especially if the soil dries out.

Insects, Diseases, and Other Plant Problems:  No serious problems.  Slugs and snails are occasional pests and leaf spot, rust and smut are occasional disease problems. It does not transplant well.

See this plant in the following landscape:
Cultivars / Varieties:
Tags:
#showy flowers#red flowers#shade tolerant#showy leaves#mass planting#moist soil#pollinator plant#wildflower garden#clumping#naturalized area#NC Native Pollinator Plant#small group plantings#maroon flowers#partial shade tolerant#HS302#woodlands#mottled leaves
 
Cultivars / Varieties:
Tags:
#showy flowers#red flowers#shade tolerant#showy leaves#mass planting#moist soil#pollinator plant#wildflower garden#clumping#naturalized area#NC Native Pollinator Plant#small group plantings#maroon flowers#partial shade tolerant#HS302#woodlands#mottled leaves
  • Attributes:
    Genus:
    Trillium
    Species:
    sessile
    Family:
    Melanthiaceae
    Uses (Ethnobotany):
    Has been used in herbal medicine
    Life Cycle:
    Perennial
    Recommended Propagation Strategy:
    Division
    Seed
    Country Or Region Of Origin:
    Northeastern United States
    Distribution:
    AL , AR , DC , IL , IN , KS , KY , MD , MI , MO , NC , NY , OH , OK , PA , TN , VA , WV
    Wildlife Value:
    Attracts beetles and flies for pollination. Small mammals will eat the fruits
    Edibility:
    EDIBLE PARTS: Young, unfolding leaves HARVEST TIME: Only collect leaves from areas you know have NOT been treated with pesticides. SAFE HANDLING PROCEDURES: Wash leaves in warm water to remove dirt and debris. Do not use dish detergent or any type of sanitizer. These products can leave a residue. Cook in boiling, salted water for ten minutes and serve like greens. SOURCE: Crowhurst, A. 1972. The Weed Cookbook. Lancer Books, Inc. New York, 190 pp.
    Dimensions:
    Height: 0 ft. 4 in. - 1 ft. 0 in.
    Width: 0 ft. 6 in. - 1 ft. 0 in.
  • Whole Plant Traits:
    Plant Type:
    Native Plant
    Poisonous
    Wildflower
    Habit/Form:
    Clumping
    Erect
    Spreading
    Growth Rate:
    Slow
    Maintenance:
    Medium
    Texture:
    Medium
  • Cultural Conditions:
    Light:
    Dappled Sunlight (Shade through upper canopy all day)
    Deep shade (Less than 2 hours to no direct sunlight)
    Partial Shade (Direct sunlight only part of the day, 2-6 hours)
    Soil Texture:
    High Organic Matter
    Soil Drainage:
    Good Drainage
    Moist
    Available Space To Plant:
    Less than 12 inches
    NC Region:
    Coastal
    Mountains
    Piedmont
    USDA Plant Hardiness Zone:
    4a, 4b, 5b, 5a, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8b, 8a
  • Fruit:
    Fruit Color:
    Red/Burgundy
    Display/Harvest Time:
    Summer
    Fruit Type:
    Berry
    Capsule
    Fruit Length:
    < 1 inch
    Fruit Width:
    < 1 inch
    Fruit Description:
    6-parted berry-like capsule with seeds that are dispersed by ants.
  • Flowers:
    Flower Color:
    Brown/Copper
    Green
    Purple/Lavender
    Flower Inflorescence:
    Solitary
    Flower Value To Gardener:
    Showy
    Flower Bloom Time:
    Spring
    Summer
    Flower Shape:
    Cup
    Flower Petals:
    2-3 rays/petals
    Flower Size:
    1-3 inches
    Flower Description:
    Three narrow, erect petals are .7 to 1.5 in. long and maroon, purplish-brown to greenish-yellow and stalkless. The flowers have a strong foul odor. Blooms April-May
  • Leaves:
    Leaf Color:
    Green
    Variegated
    Leaf Value To Gardener:
    Showy
    Leaf Type:
    Simple
    Leaf Arrangement:
    Whorled
    Leaf Shape:
    Ovate
    Leaf Margin:
    Entire
    Hairs Present:
    No
    Leaf Length:
    3-6 inches
    Leaf Width:
    3-6 inches
    Leaf Description:
    Three stalkless oval to nearly round-shaped leaves that are actually bracts grow in a whorl. They are in mottled shades of green and up to 4 inches long.
  • Stem:
    Stem Color:
    Green
    Purple/Lavender
    Red/Burgundy
    Stem Is Aromatic:
    No
    Stem Cross Section:
    Round
    Stem Form:
    Straight
    Stem Surface:
    Smooth (glabrous)
    Stem Description:
    Stout unbranched, round stem that is green to reddish-purple
  • Landscape:
    Landscape Location:
    Naturalized Area
    Woodland
    Landscape Theme:
    Native Garden
    Pollinator Garden
    Shade Garden
    Design Feature:
    Mass Planting
    Small groups
    Attracts:
    Pollinators
    Small Mammals
  • Poisonous to Humans:
    Poison Severity:
    Low
    Poison Symptoms:
    Unknown
    Poison Toxic Principle:
    Toxicity unknown, but caution because of its relationship with known toxic plants.
    Causes Contact Dermatitis:
    No
    Poison Part:
    Fruits
    Roots