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Black Mustard Brassica nigra

This plant has low severity poison characteristics.
See below
This plant is an invasive species in North Carolina
Description

The genus name Brassica is Latin for cabbage  Black Mustard is a winter annual weed in the Mustard family.  It grows rapidly and self seeds easily making it a prolific weed in open grasslands.  It also produces allelopathic chemicals that stop other seeds from germinating making it even more aggressive.  Among the plants affected by its invasive nature are beneficial native plants.  The spread of this plant can increase the frequency of fires in vegetation that is composed of broad-leaved evergreen shrubs, bushes and small trees.  The destruction of these native plants can in turn change the affected habitats to annual grassland.  

Preferring a moist habitat, in less than ideal conditions the plant will not grow to its full potential.  Hot and sunny weather can cause the leaves to wilt.  Recovery will be achieved during nighttime hours.

The leaves, seeds, and stems of this plant are edible.  The leaves can be cooked or eaten raw in salads.  The stems can be prepared and eaten like broccoli.  The seeds can be ground into a powder for flavoring or as the table condiment, hot mustard.

The oils from the seed is edible, and can also be used in making soaps.  

Insects, Diseases, and Other Plant Problems:  In addition to being invasive, its spread can increase the frequency of fires.  Although not poisonous, when eaten in large quantities the seed and pods can cause an allergic reaction in children and adolescents.  The plant can cause contact dermatitis in some people.  

See this plant in the following landscape:
Cultivars / Varieties:
Tags:
#invasive#edible plant#weeds#edible weed#winter annual weed#aggressive#edible seeds#edible leaves#cool season weed#allelopathic#edible stems#native weed#allergies#flies#bee friendly#contact dermatitis#self-fertile
 
Cultivars / Varieties:
Tags:
#invasive#edible plant#weeds#edible weed#winter annual weed#aggressive#edible seeds#edible leaves#cool season weed#allelopathic#edible stems#native weed#allergies#flies#bee friendly#contact dermatitis#self-fertile
  • Attributes:
    Genus:
    Brassica
    Species:
    nigra
    Family:
    Brassicaceae
    Life Cycle:
    Annual
    Recommended Propagation Strategy:
    Seed
    Country Or Region Of Origin:
    Europe, China, Mediterranean, Ethiopia
    Wildlife Value:
    The plant is pollinated by bees and flies. Butterflies may eat the foliage. Wasps may occasionally visit this plant.
    Play Value:
    Attracts Pollinators
    Edible fruit
    Edibility:
    The leaves, seed and stem as well as the plants oils are edible.
  • Whole Plant Traits:
    Plant Type:
    Annual
    Weed
    Habit/Form:
    Erect
    Growth Rate:
    Medium
    Maintenance:
    High
    Texture:
    Coarse
  • Cultural Conditions:
    Light:
    Dappled Sunlight (Shade through upper canopy all day)
    Full sun (6 or more hours of direct sunlight a day)
    Partial Shade (Direct sunlight only part of the day, 2-6 hours)
    Soil Texture:
    Loam (Silt)
    Sand
    Soil pH:
    Acid (<6.0)
    Alkaline (>8.0)
    Neutral (6.0-8.0)
    Soil Drainage:
    Good Drainage
    Moist
    Available Space To Plant:
    12 inches-3 feet
    NC Region:
    Coastal
    Mountains
    Piedmont
    USDA Plant Hardiness Zone:
    6b, 6a, 7b, 7a, 8b, 8a, 9b, 9a
  • Fruit:
    Fruit Color:
    Black
    Brown/Copper
    Display/Harvest Time:
    Fall
    Summer
    Fruit Type:
    Siliqua
    Fruit Length:
    < 1 inch
    Fruit Description:
    After the flower blooms, it is replaced by a narrow seedpod that will become pressed up against the stalk. The seedpod is about 2/3" long and becomes tapered. They dry and split when ripe.
  • Flowers:
    Flower Color:
    Gold/Yellow
    Flower Inflorescence:
    Raceme
    Flower Value To Gardener:
    Long Bloom Season
    Flower Bloom Time:
    Summer
    Flower Shape:
    Saucer
    Flower Petals:
    4-5 petals/rays
    Flower Size:
    < 1 inch
    Flower Description:
    Blooming on racemes up to 2' long, the 1/3" yellow flowers each have 4 petals. They can bloom for up to 2 months.
  • Leaves:
    Leaf Color:
    Green
    Leaf Value To Gardener:
    Edible
    Leaf Type:
    Simple
    Leaf Arrangement:
    Alternate
    Leaf Shape:
    Elliptical
    Lanceolate
    Obovate
    Leaf Margin:
    Lobed
    Hairs Present:
    Yes
    Leaf Length:
    > 6 inches
    Leaf Width:
    1-3 inches
    Leaf Description:
    The leaves can reach lengths of up to 10", and widths of 3". As they ascend up the stem, they will not be as large. The lower leaves are lobed and obovate, while the upper leaves can be lanceolate or elliptic. The upper surface of the lower leaf is typically bristly with scatter, stiff, short, white hairs. The underside is typically smooth, but will have a few hairs along the central vein.
  • Stem:
    Stem Color:
    Gray/Silver
    Green
    Stem Is Aromatic:
    No
    Stem Surface:
    Smooth (glabrous)
    Stem Description:
    The stems are a dull gray/green, typically branchless. They are smooth, but may have scattered stiff hairs at the base.
  • Landscape:
    Landscape Location:
    Coastal
    Slope/Bank
    Woodland
    Design Feature:
    Border
    Attracts:
    Bees
    Butterflies
    Problems:
    Allelopathic
    Contact Dermatitis
    Invasive Species
    Problem for Horses
    Weedy
  • Poisonous to Humans:
    Poison Severity:
    Low
    Poison Symptoms:
    Local dermatitis
    Poison Toxic Principle:
    Isothiocyanate
    Causes Contact Dermatitis:
    Yes