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Mountain arnica Arnica montana

Phonetic Spelling
AR-nih-kah mon-TAY-nah
This plant has high severity poison characteristics.
See below
Description

Leopard's-bane is a perennial herb in the Asteraceae (daisy) family native to Europe.  Its native habitat includes grasslands, shrub lands, and alpine mountain environments.  It can also be found in meadows, dry pine forests, open forests, and pastures.  

It grows .5 to 2 feet tall with basal downy leaves and flowers that occur May to August. The yellow-orange ray flowers surround the yellow disc florets are followed by achenes. The flowers form as a solitary bloom at the top of each stem.  In windy locations, they may need to be staked for additional support.  Cutting the stem back before the plant flowers will keep the stems short, as well as produce a secondary bloom.  Divide during the spring or fall every few years to keep this plant at its best.  Their roots can spread, taking over more space than intended.  Maintain this plant to avoid invading other portions of your garden.

It tolerates most soils if they are lime free, and a well-drained location in full sun to partial shade, but prefers slightly alkaline moist sandy loam. 

This plant is toxic, however, has been listed as endangered in many locations due to its collection for medicinal uses.  

Insects, Diseases, and Other Plant Problems:  No serious insect or disease problems.  Weedy tendencies.  

 

See this plant in the following landscape:
Cultivars / Varieties:
  • Arnica Acaulis
Arnica Acaulis
Tags:
#poisonous#perennials#yellow flowers#weedy#fragrant leaves#endangered#herbaceous#herbaceous perennials#frost tolerant#rock garden#border planting#bedding plants#acidic soils tolerant#poor soils tolerant#hairy stems#drought intolerant#contact dermatitis#self-fertile#herbaceous wildflower#poisonous if ingested#native
 
Cultivars / Varieties:
  • Arnica Acaulis
Arnica Acaulis
Tags:
#poisonous#perennials#yellow flowers#weedy#fragrant leaves#endangered#herbaceous#herbaceous perennials#frost tolerant#rock garden#border planting#bedding plants#acidic soils tolerant#poor soils tolerant#hairy stems#drought intolerant#contact dermatitis#self-fertile#herbaceous wildflower#poisonous if ingested#native
  • Attributes:
    Genus:
    Arnica
    Species:
    montana
    Family:
    Asteraceae
    Uses (Ethnobotany):
    Dried flower heads have been used in herbal medicine for centuries.
    Life Cycle:
    Perennial
    Recommended Propagation Strategy:
    Seed
    Country Or Region Of Origin:
    Europe
    Wildlife Value:
    Bees, flies, moths and butterflies are attracted to the flowers.
    Play Value:
    Attractive Flowers
    Attracts Pollinators
    Easy to Grow
    Fragrance
    Edibility:
    Not edible, poisonous.
  • Whole Plant Traits:
    Plant Type:
    Herb
    Herbaceous Perennial
    Poisonous
    Woody Plant Leaf Characteristics:
    Deciduous
    Habit/Form:
    Clumping
    Growth Rate:
    Medium
    Maintenance:
    High
    Medium
    Texture:
    Medium
  • Cultural Conditions:
    Light:
    Full sun (6 or more hours of direct sunlight a day)
    Partial Shade (Direct sunlight only part of the day, 2-6 hours)
    Soil Texture:
    Clay
    Loam (Silt)
    Sand
    Soil pH:
    Acid (<6.0)
    Alkaline (>8.0)
    Neutral (6.0-8.0)
    Soil Drainage:
    Good Drainage
    Moist
    Available Space To Plant:
    Less than 12 inches
    12 inches-3 feet
    NC Region:
    Coastal
    Mountains
    Piedmont
    USDA Plant Hardiness Zone:
    4a, 4b, 5b, 5a, 6b, 6a, 7b, 7a, 8a, 8b, 9b, 9a
  • Fruit:
    Fruit Color:
    Gold/Yellow
    Display/Harvest Time:
    Fall
    Fruit Type:
    Achene
    Fruit Description:
    The fruits are a bristly, hairy yellow pappus, a modified calyx.
  • Flowers:
    Flower Color:
    Gold/Yellow
    Orange
    Flower Inflorescence:
    Head
    Solitary
    Flower Value To Gardener:
    Showy
    Flower Bloom Time:
    Summer
    Flower Shape:
    Radial
    Tubular
    Flower Petals:
    7 - 20 petals/rays
    Flower Size:
    1-3 inches
    Flower Description:
    Flowers are yellow-orange rays surrounding yellow disc florets in late spring to early summer.
  • Leaves:
    Woody Plant Leaf Characteristics:
    Deciduous
    Leaf Color:
    Green
    Leaf Value To Gardener:
    Fragrant
    Leaf Type:
    Simple
    Leaf Arrangement:
    Opposite
    Rosulate
    Leaf Shape:
    Lanceolate
    Leaf Margin:
    Serrate
    Hairs Present:
    Yes
    Leaf Description:
    While basal leaves are clustered, the stem leaves are opposite and simple. The upper side of the leaves are hairy and have longitudinal veins.
  • Stem:
    Stem Is Aromatic:
    No
    Stem Surface:
    Hairy (pubescent)
    Stem Description:
    The stems are erect hairy and carry a single flower.
  • Landscape:
    Landscape Location:
    Meadow
    Vertical Spaces
    Landscape Theme:
    Butterfly Garden
    Pollinator Garden
    Rock Garden
    Design Feature:
    Border
    Attracts:
    Bees
    Butterflies
    Moths
    Problems:
    Contact Dermatitis
    Poisonous to Humans
    Problem for Children
    Weedy
  • Poisonous to Humans:
    Poison Severity:
    High
    Poison Symptoms:
    Poisonous through dermatitis and ingestion. Skin irritation upon contact; after ingestion, heart palpitation, vomiting, drowsiness, shortness of breath, and coma in children.
    Poison Toxic Principle:
    Helenalin and its esters
    Causes Contact Dermatitis:
    Yes
    Poison Part:
    Flowers
    Roots