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Peanuts Arachis hypogaea

Previously known as:

  • Arachis africana
  • Arachis americana
  • Arachis asiatica
  • Arachis glabrata
  • Arachis guaraniana
  • Arachis nambyquarae
  • Arachis oleifera
  • Arachis rasteiro
  • Lathyrus esquirolii
This plant has high severity poison characteristics.
See below
Description

Arachis hypogaea, or peanut, is a legume that is native to Central Brazil and now widely grown worldwide, mainly for its edible seeds. The species name hypogaea means "under the earth" and reflects that fact that the pods containing edible seeds grow below ground. The peanut is an herbaceous perennial, but grown as an annual. It produces flowers above ground, but develops the fruit below ground in a process known as geocarpy. Like most legume plants, peanuts have roots which contain nodules of nitrogen fixing bacteria making it a valuable soil-enriching crop. When removing plant remains at the end of the growing season, only remove the aerial parts of the plant and leave the roots in the ground to decay and release their nitrogen.

Peanut plants thrive in warm climates with full sun and well-drained, light, sandy, loam soil. Plants are not frost-hardy and are best grown in areas with long warm summers. Plant seeds in the spring after the ground has warmed, in well-composted, fertile, light-textured, sandy, well-drained soils in full sun. Plant seeds (peanuts) about 2” deep in rows about 3 feet apart with 6-9” between each plant in the row. After first fall frost, dig up the plants, shake off the soil, and spread on a dry surface not touching the ground to cure before stripping the pods from the plants. Pods typically ripen 120-150 days after seed is planted.

Most varieties can either be in erect form or a runner form with a growth cycle of 4-5 months depending on the variety. The attractive, low-growing ,yellow pea-like flowers pollinate themselves then produce a ‘peg’ that grows down and away from the plant into the soil from which the peanut seed pod will develop.

Four main types of peanut varieties are grown in the United States:

  • A Runner peanut, the most commonly grown peanut plant, is often used in the production of peanut butter.
  • Virginia style peanuts have the largest kernels and are often processed in-the-shell and used as gourmet peanuts. North Carolina is a major producer of Virginia peanuts.
  • Spanish peanuts have smaller kernels covered with a reddish brown skin and are often used in peanut confections. They are higher in oil content than other varieties.
  • Valencia peanuts have 3 or more seeds per pod and are covered in a bright red skin. They are very sweet peanuts and are popular roasted or boiled.

Diseases, Pests, and Other Plant Problems:

Disease suseptibility includes leaf spots, southern stem rot, Sclerotinia blight, Cylindrocladium black rot and Spotted wilt. The plant is allelopathic, meaning it suppresses the growth of other plant species by releasing toxic substances. The seeds of peanuts contain proteins that have allergen properties which may result in serious allergic reactions in some people.

See this plant in the following landscape:
Cultivars / Varieties:
Tags:
#annual#legume#frost tender#vegetable garden#edible seeds#flowering
 
Cultivars / Varieties:
Tags:
#annual#legume#frost tender#vegetable garden#edible seeds#flowering
  • Attributes:
    Genus:
    Arachis
    Species:
    hypogaea
    Family:
    Fabaceae
    Uses (Ethnobotany):
    Peanut seeds are edible and high in proteins and other minerals and vitamins. Roots, seed hulls or leaves are used for cosmetics, soaps, plastics, wallboard, livestock feed, fertilizer filler and alternative fuels.
    Life Cycle:
    Annual
    Recommended Propagation Strategy:
    Seed
    Country Or Region Of Origin:
    Central Brazil
    Distribution:
    Grown worldwide
    Wildlife Value:
    Minor or low food source for small mammals and terrestrial birds.
    Edibility:
    The peanut is the most common edible plant part and is consumed either raw, cooked, made into oils or, with fats removed, ground into flour. Young leaves and tips may be suitable as cooked green vegetables. For those with peanut allergies, exposure to peanuts can cause severe reactions.
    Dimensions:
    Height: 0 ft. 9 in. - 1 ft. 6 in.
    Width: 0 ft. 9 in. - 1 ft. 6 in.
  • Whole Plant Traits:
    Plant Type:
    Annual
    Edible
    Vegetable
    Habit/Form:
    Erect
    Prostrate
    Spreading
    Maintenance:
    Medium
  • Cultural Conditions:
    Light:
    Full sun (6 or more hours of direct sunlight a day)
    Soil Texture:
    Clay
    Loam (Silt)
    Sand
    Soil pH:
    Acid (<6.0)
    Neutral (6.0-8.0)
    Soil Drainage:
    Good Drainage
    Moist
    Available Space To Plant:
    12 inches-3 feet
    NC Region:
    Coastal
    Piedmont
    USDA Plant Hardiness Zone:
    2a, 2b, 3a, 3b, 4b, 4a, 5a, 5b, 6b, 6a, 7a, 7b, 8b, 8a, 9a, 9b, 10a, 10b, 11a, 11b
  • Fruit:
    Fruit Color:
    Brown/Copper
    Fruit Value To Gardener:
    Edible
    Display/Harvest Time:
    Fall
    Fruit Type:
    Legume
    Fruit Length:
    1-3 inches
    Fruit Width:
    < 1 inch
    Fruit Description:
    The peanut is a legume, not a true nut. The flower stems, once the flowers are fertilized, begin to grow into the soil where the irregularly ovoid seed pod develops. The seeds vary from oblong to nearly round, surrounded by a papery seed coat.
  • Flowers:
    Flower Color:
    Gold/Yellow
    Flower Inflorescence:
    Solitary
    Flower Value To Gardener:
    Showy
    Flower Bloom Time:
    Summer
    Flower Petals:
    4-5 petals/rays
    Flower Size:
    1-3 inches
    Flower Description:
    Orange-veined, yellow, self-polinating flowers are produced near the base of the plant about 40 days after planting and typically bloom July to September.
  • Leaves:
    Leaf Color:
    Green
    Leaf Type:
    Compound (Pinnately , Bipinnately, Palmately)
    Leaf Arrangement:
    Opposite
    Leaf Shape:
    Elliptical
    Ovate
    Leaf Margin:
    Entire
    Hairs Present:
    No
    Leaf Length:
    1-3 inches
    Leaf Width:
    < 1 inch
    Leaf Description:
    The leaves have an even number of elliptical leaflets each with a prominent mid vein.
  • Stem:
    Stem Color:
    Green
    Stem Is Aromatic:
    No
    Stem Cross Section:
    Round
    Stem Form:
    Straight
    Stem Surface:
    Hairy (pubescent)
    Stem Description:
    Has a sturdy erect or prostrate stem that is cylindrical and smooth at the base becoming angular and hairy with age.
  • Landscape:
    Landscape Theme:
    Edible Garden
    Design Feature:
    Mass Planting
    Problems:
    Allelopathic
    Poisonous to Humans
    Problem for Children
  • Poisonous to Humans:
    Poison Severity:
    High
    Poison Symptoms:
    Peanut-allergic reactions may involve the skin, the respiratory tract, and the gastrointestinal tract from direct contact, cross contact or inhalation.
    Poison Toxic Principle:
    Seed storage proteins ARAH1-13
    Causes Contact Dermatitis:
    No
    Poison Part:
    Seeds