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Prairie Dogbane Apocynum cannabinum

Other Common Name(s):

Phonetic Spelling
ah-POS-ih-num kan-na-BEE-num
This plant has high severity poison characteristics.
See below
Description

Indian Hemp is a bushy member of the dogbane family that may grow to 5 feet tall. All parts of this plant exude a milky juice when bruised and all plant parts are considered highly toxic to humans. and mammals. This plant typically grows in the wild in dry rocky or open woods, glades and prairies. Stems are fibrous and were important to Native Americans for making rope products.

Indian hemp will adapt to almost any soil type and prefers full sun. It can grow aggressively and is good for erosion control on slopes and stream banks. It is not recommended for garden use due to its aggressive behavior. The nectar-rich flowers are small and non-showy but very attractive to pollinators.

 

Insects, Diseases, or Other Plant Problems: No serious problems.

 

 

 

Cultivars / Varieties:
Tags:
#bees#invasive#poisonous#drought tolerant#perennial#wildlife plant#showy#herb garden#low flammability#NC native#queen butterfly#native garden#fire resistant#naturalizes#pollinator plant#native wildflower#wildflower garden#dry soils tolerant#butterfly friendly#problem for cats#problem for dogs#problem for horses
 
Cultivars / Varieties:
Tags:
#bees#invasive#poisonous#drought tolerant#perennial#wildlife plant#showy#herb garden#low flammability#NC native#queen butterfly#native garden#fire resistant#naturalizes#pollinator plant#native wildflower#wildflower garden#dry soils tolerant#butterfly friendly#problem for cats#problem for dogs#problem for horses
  • Attributes:
    Genus:
    Apocynum
    Species:
    cannabinum
    Family:
    Apocynaceae
    Uses (Ethnobotany):
    Used by Native Americans and in herbal medicine to treat a variety of ailments. Fibers were used as thread for sewing or to make string, netting and other items.
    Life Cycle:
    Perennial
    Recommended Propagation Strategy:
    Division
    Seed
    Country Or Region Of Origin:
    All of North America
    Distribution:
    All 48 states plus much of Canada
    Fire Risk Rating:
    low flammability
    Wildlife Value:
    Its flowers are attractive to bees, butterflies and other pollinators.
    Play Value:
    Wildlife Food Source
    Edibility:
    Non-edible
    Dimensions:
    Height: 2 ft. 0 in. - 5 ft. 0 in.
    Width: 1 ft. 6 in. - 2 ft. 6 in.
  • Whole Plant Traits:
    Plant Type:
    Herb
    Native Plant
    Perennial
    Poisonous
    Wildflower
    Woody Plant Leaf Characteristics:
    Deciduous
    Habit/Form:
    Erect
    Growth Rate:
    Rapid
    Maintenance:
    High
    Texture:
    Coarse
  • Cultural Conditions:
    Light:
    Full sun (6 or more hours of direct sunlight a day)
    Partial Shade (Direct sunlight only part of the day, 2-6 hours)
    Soil Texture:
    Clay
    Loam (Silt)
    Sand
    Shallow Rocky
    Soil Drainage:
    Moist
    Occasionally Dry
    Available Space To Plant:
    12 inches-3 feet
    NC Region:
    Coastal
    Mountains
    Piedmont
    USDA Plant Hardiness Zone:
    3b, 3a, 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8b, 8a, 9b, 9a, 10a, 10b, 11a, 11b
  • Fruit:
    Display/Harvest Time:
    Fall
    Fruit Type:
    Capsule
    Fruit Length:
    > 3 inches
    Fruit Description:
    The fruit is a pair of hanging, slender, slightly curved pods 4 to 8 inches long with small brown seeds with a tuft of white hair to carry them in the wind.
  • Flowers:
    Flower Color:
    Green
    Pink
    White
    Flower Inflorescence:
    Cyme
    Flower Bloom Time:
    Summer
    Flower Shape:
    Urn
    Flower Petals:
    4-5 petals/rays
    Flower Description:
    1-3 inch wide terminal panicles of greenish-white tubular or bell-shaped flowers. Individual flowers 1/4 inch. Additional clusters occur in the upper leaf axils.
  • Leaves:
    Woody Plant Leaf Characteristics:
    Deciduous
    Leaf Color:
    Green
    Deciduous Leaf Fall Color:
    Gold/Yellow
    Leaf Type:
    Simple
    Leaf Arrangement:
    Opposite
    Leaf Shape:
    Elliptical
    Ovate
    Leaf Margin:
    Entire
    Hairs Present:
    Yes
    Leaf Description:
    The leaves are opposite with a smooth margin. The lower leaves will have a short stem, while the upper leaves are sessile. The leaves are 1 to 3-inches wide and half as much across. They are ovate to elliptical. The undersides have hairs. Yellow color in fall.
  • Stem:
    Stem Color:
    Red/Burgundy
    Stem Is Aromatic:
    No
    Stem Surface:
    Smooth (glabrous)
    Stem Description:
    The stem is smooth and red with a milky sap inside. It has ascending branches near the top of the stem.
  • Landscape:
    Landscape Location:
    Naturalized Area
    Attracts:
    Butterflies
    Moths
    Pollinators
    Songbirds
    Specialized Bees
    Resistance To Challenges:
    Fire
    Problems:
    Poisonous to Humans
    Problem for Cats
    Problem for Children
    Problem for Dogs
    Problem for Horses
    Weedy
  • Poisonous to Humans:
    Poison Severity:
    High
    Poison Symptoms:
    Cardiac Arrest, nausea, vomiting, weakness, diarrhea. The milky sap from stems can cause blisters on skin.
    Poison Toxic Principle:
    Resins and cardiac glycosides
    Causes Contact Dermatitis:
    Yes
    Poison Part:
    Flowers
    Fruits
    Leaves
    Roots
    Seeds
    Stems