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Abies grandis is often confused with:
Abies amabilis Form
Plants that fill a similar niche:
Picea glauca Picea glauca
Persea borbonia Form
Abies cilicica Abies cilicica

Abies grandis

Description

Grand fir is an evergreen conifer native to the Pacific Northwest and Northern California, occurring at altitudes of sea level to 1,800 m. in the Pinaceae (pine) family. There are 2 varieties growing at different altitudes. The coastal variety is one of the tallest firs in the world. 

This is a large tree for the landscape and is probably best used for naturalization within its growing environment. It is very fragrant and can be used as a Christmas tree.

Firs are wildlife-friendly and are used for cover, nesting and food by birds and mammals.

Insects, Diseases, and Other Plant Problems: No serious insect or disease problems. The balsam woolly adelgid is a problem in some areas. Other potential insect pests include bark beetles, spruce budworms, tussock moths, aphids, bagworms and scale. Spider mites may occur in hot conditions. Potential disease problems include cankers, heart rot, root rot, needle rust and twig blight.

VIDEO created by Ryan Contreras for “Landscape Plant Materials I:  Deciduous Hardwoods and Conifers or Landscape Plant Materials II:  Spring Flowering Trees and Shrubs” a plant identification course offered by the Department of Horticulture at Oregon State University

Profile Video:
See this plant in the following landscape:
Cultivars / Varieties:
  • ‘Aurea’
    Yellow new foliage
  • ‘Compacta’
    Small round ball
  • ‘Johnsonii’
    Narrow form
  • var. grandis.
    Coastal grand fir is the tallest
  • var. idahoensis
    Interior grand fir is shorter than the coastal one.
‘Aurea’, ‘Compacta’, ‘Johnsonii’, var. grandis., var. idahoensis
Tags:
#evergreen#shade tree#cones#aromatic#cold tolerant#Christmas trees
 
Cultivars / Varieties:
  • ‘Aurea’
    Yellow new foliage
  • ‘Compacta’
    Small round ball
  • ‘Johnsonii’
    Narrow form
  • var. grandis.
    Coastal grand fir is the tallest
  • var. idahoensis
    Interior grand fir is shorter than the coastal one.
‘Aurea’, ‘Compacta’, ‘Johnsonii’, var. grandis., var. idahoensis
Tags:
#evergreen#shade tree#cones#aromatic#cold tolerant#Christmas trees
  • Attributes:
    Genus:
    Abies
    Species:
    grandis
    Family:
    Pinaceae
    Uses (Ethnobotany):
    Plateau Indian tribes used the inner bark for treating colds and fever. Used as a Christmas tree and used in paper-making, as well as construction for framing and flooring.
    Life Cycle:
    Woody
    Recommended Propagation Strategy:
    Seed
    Country Or Region Of Origin:
    Southwestern Canada to CA
    Distribution:
    Western Canada, CA, ID, OR
    Wildlife Value:
    Firs are useful to many animals for cover and nesting sites. Grouse eat the needles. Deer and elk eat the foliage and twigs in the winter. Birds, chipmunks and squirrels eat the seeds.
    Play Value:
    Wildlife Cover/Habitat
    Wildlife Food Source
    Dimensions:
    Height: 130 ft. 0 in. - 230 ft. 0 in.
    Width: 20 ft. 0 in. - 26 ft. 0 in.
  • Whole Plant Traits:
    Plant Type:
    Tree
    Woody Plant Leaf Characteristics:
    Broadleaf Evergreen
    Habit/Form:
    Conical
    Irregular
    Growth Rate:
    Rapid
    Maintenance:
    Low
    Texture:
    Coarse
  • Cultural Conditions:
    Light:
    Full sun (6 or more hours of direct sunlight a day)
    Partial Shade (Direct sunlight only part of the day, 2-6 hours)
    Soil Texture:
    Clay
    Loam (Silt)
    Sand
    Soil pH:
    Acid (<6.0)
    Alkaline (>8.0)
    Neutral (6.0-8.0)
    Soil Drainage:
    Good Drainage
    Available Space To Plant:
    24-60 feet
    USDA Plant Hardiness Zone:
    4b, 4a, 5b, 5a, 6b, 6a
  • Fruit:
    Fruit Color:
    Brown/Copper
    Green
    Fruit Length:
    1-3 inches
    Fruit Description:
    The cones are 1.3- 4 inches long. The scale bracts are short and hidden in the closed cone. In about 6 months the cone disintegrates and the winged seeds are released.
  • Flowers:
    Flower Description:
    No flowers
  • Leaves:
    Woody Plant Leaf Characteristics:
    Broadleaf Evergreen
    Leaf Color:
    Green
    White
    Leaf Feel:
    Leathery
    Prickly
    Leaf Value To Gardener:
    Fragrant
    Leaf Type:
    Needles
    Leaf Arrangement:
    Whorled
    Leaf Shape:
    Linear
    Leaf Margin:
    Entire
    Hairs Present:
    No
    Leaf Length:
    1-3 inches
    Leaf Width:
    < 1 inch
    Leaf Description:
    Needle-like, flattened leaves are 1-1.3 inches long and 2 mm wide. The glossy dark green leaves have two green-white bands of stomata on the underside and are slightly notched at the tip. The 2-ranked leaves spiral around the shoot, but each leaf is variably twisted at the base so they all lie in two more-or-less flat ranks on either side of the shoot.
  • Bark:
    Bark Color:
    Dark Brown
    Dark Gray
    Surface/Attachment:
    Furrowed
    Ridges
    Bark Description:
    The bark is gray in younger trees and becomes brown with age, often with reddish periderm visible in furrows bounded by hard flat ridges.
  • Stem:
    Stem Color:
    Brown/Copper
    Stem Is Aromatic:
    Yes
    Stem Surface:
    Hairy (pubescent)
    Stem Description:
    Twigs are mostly opposite and light brown
  • Landscape:
    Landscape Location:
    Lawn
    Naturalized Area
    Design Feature:
    Foundation Planting
    Attracts:
    Small Mammals
    Songbirds