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Caucasian Lime Tilia x euchlora

Other Common Name(s):

Phonetic Spelling
TIL-ee-uh u-KLO-ra
Description

The Crimean Linden is a medium size to a large deciduous tree that is thought to be a hybrid of Tilia cordata and Tilia dasystyla. The two species are native to Ukraine Crimea, but they do not share the same habitats. The parentage of the Crimean Linden remains unclear. It is a member of the Malvaceae family. The tree grows from 40-60 feet tall and 20-30 feet wide, and it has a pyramidal shape. The tree's crown is dense, and the branches are somewhat pendulous. The tree is also known as Caucasian Linden and Causcasina Lime.

This hybrid tree originated in Ukraine Crimea. The tree is sterile, and there are no similar hybrids found in the wild. The German botanist, Karl Koch, described the tree in 1866. His description is based on a young specimen that was found in Berlin. It was thought that the tree originated from a seed collected in Crimea. Since the tree is sterile, the trees in cultivation may be the result of a single clone.

The genus name, Tilia, is Latin for Linden or Lime Tree. It is derived from the Greek word ptelea or "Elm tree" and tillai or "Black Poplar." The translation meaning "broad" or perhaps "broad-leaved." The species name, echlora, originated from the Greek words eu meaning "good" and chloros meaning "green."  This references the tree's foliage.  The common names for this genus are Lime or Linden. In North America, this tree is also known as Basswood. It is important to note, that this tree is not related to the citrus lime fruit tree.

The Crimean Linden prefers moist but well-drained soils of loam. They are easily grown in full sun or part shade. They are very tolerant of urban conditions. Since they grow to 60 feet high and 30 feet wide, proper placement must be considered,

The Crimean Linden is propagated by cuttings. Often the trees that are sold have been grafted. Any basal suckers of grafted trees should be removed quickly.

The bark is brown and smooth, but fissures appear with age. The leaves of the tree are heart shape, glossy dark green with serrated margins, and the fall foliage is yellow. The flowers are pale yellowish-white and from cymes that are very fragrant. The fruit is a grayish-brown hairy nutlet.

These hybrid trees may be planted singularly or in groups as an ornamental shade for the lawn or as a street tree. In the 20th century, it was a popular tree for street planting in Great Britain.

The rich sugary nectar of the flowers is attractive to bees and butterflies.

Quick ID Hints:

  • Leaves upper surface glossy, dark green, and undersides paler with tufts of hair along the veins
  • Leaves are cordate and 2-3.5 inches long and 2-3 inches wide
  • Blossoms are white to pale yellow with 3-7 flowers creating a cluster
  • Fruit small grayish-brown, hairy nutlets
  • Young bark grayish-brown and smooth and older bark fissured 

Insects, Pests, and Other Problems:

There are no serious disease or insect problems. This hybrid variety appears to be more resistant to aphids that would decrease the likelihood of sooty molds. Borers, scale, leaf miners, lace bugs, caterpillars, and Japanese Beetles may be seen. Powdery mildew, leaf spots, and canker may occur. Verticillium Wilt can be fatal but occurs infrequently.

 

 

See this plant in the following landscape:
Cultivars / Varieties:
Tags:
#deciduous#shade tree#drought tolerant#white flowers#yellow flowers#fall interest#glossy leaves#sterile#screening#suckers#urban conditions tolerant#butterfly friendly#nectar plant early summer#nectar plant mid-spring#bee friendly
 
Cultivars / Varieties:
Tags:
#deciduous#shade tree#drought tolerant#white flowers#yellow flowers#fall interest#glossy leaves#sterile#screening#suckers#urban conditions tolerant#butterfly friendly#nectar plant early summer#nectar plant mid-spring#bee friendly
  • Attributes:
    Genus:
    Tilia
    Family:
    Malvaceae
    Life Cycle:
    Perennial
    Woody
    Recommended Propagation Strategy:
    Grafting
    Root Cutting
    Country Or Region Of Origin:
    Ukraine Crimea and Iran
    Distribution:
    Native: Ukraine Crimea and Iran; Introduced: Austria, Germany, Great Britain, and Hungry
    Wildlife Value:
    Bees are attracted to the rich nectar of the flowers.
    Play Value:
    Attractive Flowers
    Attracts Pollinators
    Screening
    Shade
    Particularly Resistant To (Insects/Diseases/Other Problems):
    Tolerates wind, salt, air pollution and drought.
    Dimensions:
    Height: 40 ft. 0 in. - 60 ft. 0 in.
    Width: 20 ft. 0 in. - 30 ft. 0 in.
  • Whole Plant Traits:
    Plant Type:
    Tree
    Woody Plant Leaf Characteristics:
    Deciduous
    Habit/Form:
    Dense
    Erect
    Oval
    Pyramidal
    Rounded
    Maintenance:
    Low
    Texture:
    Medium
  • Cultural Conditions:
    Light:
    Full sun (6 or more hours of direct sunlight a day)
    Partial Shade (Direct sunlight only part of the day, 2-6 hours)
    Soil Texture:
    Clay
    Loam (Silt)
    Sand
    Soil pH:
    Alkaline (>8.0)
    Neutral (6.0-8.0)
    Soil Drainage:
    Good Drainage
    Moist
    USDA Plant Hardiness Zone:
    3a, 3b, 4b, 4a, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7b, 7a
  • Fruit:
    Fruit Color:
    Brown/Copper
    Gray/Silver
    Display/Harvest Time:
    Summer
    Fruit Type:
    Achene
    Fruit Length:
    < 1 inch
    Fruit Width:
    < 1 inch
    Fruit Description:
    The fruits are tiny grayish-brown pubescent nutlets. They about 0.3 inches long and 0.2 inches wide. They appear in late summer. The seeds are usually sterile.
  • Flowers:
    Flower Color:
    Gold/Yellow
    White
    Flower Inflorescence:
    Cyme
    Flower Value To Gardener:
    Fragrant
    Showy
    Flower Bloom Time:
    Spring
    Summer
    Flower Petals:
    4-5 petals/rays
    Colored Sepals
    Flower Size:
    < 1 inch
    Flower Description:
    Three to seven flowers create a drooping cluster that is attached to papery, winglike bracts. The cyme measures 2 to 8 inches long. The blossoms are white to pale yellowish-white and appear from May to June. The fragrant flowers are nectar-rich and attract bees and butterflies.
  • Leaves:
    Woody Plant Leaf Characteristics:
    Deciduous
    Leaf Color:
    Green
    Leaf Feel:
    Glossy
    Deciduous Leaf Fall Color:
    Gold/Yellow
    Leaf Type:
    Simple
    Leaf Arrangement:
    Alternate
    Leaf Shape:
    Cordate
    Leaf Margin:
    Serrate
    Hairs Present:
    Yes
    Leaf Length:
    3-6 inches
    Leaf Width:
    3-6 inches
    Leaf Description:
    The leaves are glossy, dark green above, and paler on the undersides. They measure approximately 2 to 3.5 inches long and 2 to 3 inches wide and have serrated margins. The leaves are hairless except for the tufts of hair under the vein axils. In the fall, the leaves are yellow.
  • Bark:
    Bark Color:
    Light Brown
    Light Gray
    Surface/Attachment:
    Fissured
    Smooth
    Bark Description:
    The bark is grayish-brown and initially is smooth. As the tree ages, the bark becomes fissured lengthwise.
  • Stem:
    Stem Color:
    Green
    Stem Is Aromatic:
    No
    Stem Buds:
    Smooth/Hairless
    Stem Bud Scales:
    Enclosed in more than 2 scales
    Stem Description:
    The stems are slender and bright green. The buds are smooth and appear orangish-red in the winter with 3 scales.
  • Landscape:
    Landscape Location:
    Lawn
    Landscape Theme:
    Drought Tolerant Garden
    Pollinator Garden
    Design Feature:
    Screen/Privacy
    Shade Tree
    Street Tree
    Attracts:
    Bees
    Butterflies
    Resistance To Challenges:
    Drought
    Pollution