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Plants that fill a similar niche:
Monarda didyma Monarda didyma
Leucanthemum vulgare Leucanthemum vulgare
Solidago Solidago velutina subsp. sparsiflora
Oenothera biennis has some common disease problems:
Powdery Mildew in Turf
Oenothera biennis has some other problems:
Leaf Spot in Turf

Oenothera biennis

Common Name(s):

Description


An upright biennial in the Onagraceae family.  It commonly grows in fields, prairies, glades, thickets, waste ground, disturbed sites, and along roadsides and railroad right-of-ways. This plant naturalizes easily and works well planted along boarders or makes an excellent addition to a wildflower, cottage, or herb garden. It is highly drought tolerant. Flowers open at dusk and close again in the morning when hit by sun, hence the common name of evening primrose.  Fruits are capsules (narrow seed pods to 1 1/2” long) which split open when ripe to release numerous seeds (to 100 seeds per capsule). Plants die after setting seed, but will naturalize in the landscape.

Wildlife Value:  Flowers are fertilized by night-flying moths which are attracted by the mild lemon flower fragrance and by bees in the early morning before closure. Seeds attracts birds. Members of the genus Oenothera support the following specialized bees: Melissodes (Apomelissodes) fimbriatus and Lasioglossum (Sphecodogastra) oenotherae.

Insects, Diseases, and Other Plant Problems: No serious insect or disease problems. Leaf spot and powdery mildew may occur.

Regions: Mostly eastern and central North America

 

Cultivars:
Tags:
#bees#fall#butterflies#sun#yellow#birds#pollinators#summer#drought tolerant#spring#perennial#wildlife plant#wildflowers#moths#nectar plant#cottage garden#naturalize#border#specialized bees#herb garden
Cultivars:
Tags:
#bees#fall#butterflies#sun#yellow#birds#pollinators#summer#drought tolerant#spring#perennial#wildlife plant#wildflowers#moths#nectar plant#cottage garden#naturalize#border#specialized bees#herb garden
  • Attributes:
    Genus:
    Oenothera
    Species:
    biennis
    Life Cycle:
    Biennial
    Perennial
    Country Or Region Of Origin:
    Canada, United States
  • Whole Plant Traits:
    Plant Type:
    Perennial
    Wildflower
  • Cultural Conditions:
    Light:
    Full sun (6 or more hours of direct sunlight a day)
    Partial Shade (Direct sunlight only part of the day, 2-6 hours)
    Soil Drainage:
    Good Drainage
  • Fruit:
    Fruit Value To Gardener:
    Showy
  • Flowers:
    Flower Color:
    Gold/Yellow
    Flower Bloom Time:
    Fall
    Spring
    Summer
    Flower Shape:
    Cross
    Flower Petals:
    4-5 petals/rays
    Flower Size:
    1-3 inches
    Flower Description:
    1-2 in. four-petaled, 4-sepals, 8 stamens and a prominent style with a cross-shaped stigma. Petals are pale lemon yellow and bowl-shaped. Flowers bloom in a multi-flowered terminal panicle, they open in the evening and remain open through morning, closing in the heat of day.
  • Leaves:
    Leaf Color:
    Green
    Leaf Shape:
    Elliptical
    Lanceolate
    Hairs Present:
    No
    Leaf Length:
    > 6 inches
    Leaf Width:
    1-3 inches
    Leaf Description:
    In the first year, it produces a basal rosette of shallow-toothed, lanceolate, light green to olive green leaves (to 4-8” long and 2” wide) Leaves are elliptic to lance-shaped leaves, stalkless, wavy-toothed.
  • Stem:
    Stem Color:
    Green
    Red/Burgundy
    Stem Is Aromatic:
    No
    Stem Buds:
    Hairy
    Stem Description:
    In the second year, and upright, hairy, reddish-green flower stem (can be multiple stems) with spirally arranged leaves rises from the center of the rosette to 3-5’ tall, topped by a showy summer to fall (June to September) bloom.
  • Landscape:
    Landscape Theme:
    Cottage Garden
    Attracts:
    Butterflies
    Pollinators
    Songbirds
    Specialized Bees