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Toad-flax Nuttallanthus canadensis

Other Common Name(s):

Previously known as:

  • Linaria canadensis
Phonetic Spelling
nut-al-ANTH-us ka-na-DEN-sis
Description

Linaria canadensis is native to eastern North America from Ontario east to Nova Scotia and south to Texas and Florida. It is an annual or biennial growing to 10-32 inches tall, with slender, erect flowering stems. The flowers are purple to off-white, .4 to .6 inches long, appearing from mid-spring to late summer. It typically grows in bare areas and grasslands.

Plant in coastal locations in naturalized areas to support wildlife. Use in full sun and dry sandy soil where there is little competition from other plants. Rocky soil, mesic conditions, and a little shade are also tolerated.

Habitat: In a wide variety of natural and disturbed habitats, especially common and weedy in disturbed sites such as roadsides and fields, also common and apparently native in thin soil of rock outcrops

See this plant in the following landscape:
Cultivars / Varieties:
Tags:
#white#sun#partial shade#annual#blue#biennial#coastal#NC native#spring interest#wildflower garden#food source summer#food source herbage#butterfly larvae#larval host#audubon
 
Cultivars / Varieties:
Tags:
#white#sun#partial shade#annual#blue#biennial#coastal#NC native#spring interest#wildflower garden#food source summer#food source herbage#butterfly larvae#larval host#audubon
  • Attributes:
    Genus:
    Nuttallanthus
    Species:
    canadensis
    Family:
    Plantaginaceae
    Life Cycle:
    Annual
    Biennial
    Country Or Region Of Origin:
    Canada to Mexico, Dominican Republic, W. & S. South America.
    Wildlife Value:
    Larval host plant to butterflies. Nectar source to bees and butterflies.
  • Whole Plant Traits:
    Plant Type:
    Annual
    Native Plant
    Wildflower
  • Cultural Conditions:
    Light:
    Full sun (6 or more hours of direct sunlight a day)
    Partial Shade (Direct sunlight only part of the day, 2-6 hours)
    Soil Texture:
    Loam (Silt)
    Sand
    Shallow Rocky
    Soil Drainage:
    Moist
    Occasionally Dry
    NC Region:
    Coastal
    Mountains
    Piedmont
  • Fruit:
    Display/Harvest Time:
    Summer
    Fruit Type:
    Capsule
    Fruit Description:
    Seed capsule that splits open to release the flattened smooth seeds. These seeds can be blown about by the wind. Fruit displays from April to September.
  • Flowers:
    Flower Color:
    Blue
    Purple/Lavender
    White
    Flower Bloom Time:
    Spring
    Summer
    Flower Description:
    Blue flowers bloom from March to July.
  • Leaves:
    Leaf Color:
    Green
    Leaf Type:
    Simple
    Leaf Arrangement:
    Alternate
    Opposite
    Leaf Shape:
    Linear
    Oblong
    Leaf Margin:
    Entire
    Hairs Present:
    No
    Leaf Length:
    < 1 inch
    Leaf Width:
    < 1 inch
    Leaf Description:
    The leaves are up to 1½" long and 1/8" across. They are linear to oblong-linear, glabrous, smooth along the margins, and sessile. The leaves on the taller flowering stalks are alternate, while the leaves on the lower vegetative stems are usually opposite.
  • Stem:
    Stem Is Aromatic:
    No
  • Landscape:
    Problems:
    Weedy