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Red Oak Quercus coccinea

Other Common Name(s):

Other plants called Red Oak:

Phonetic Spelling
KWER-kus kok-SIN-ee-uh
This plant has low severity poison characteristics.
See below
Description

Scarlet Oak is a native deciduous tree in the beech family that grows 50 to 80 feet tall and spreads between 45 to 60 feet. It is long-lived, durable and easy to grow. It is found in dry upland forests in the Piedmont and middle to lower mountains of NC. The tree prefers acidic sandy soils on the dry side but will tolerate other soils if they are well-drained. The tree is narrow with an open irregular crown and often retains numerous small dead branches.

It is often grown for its beautiful fall color and drought tolerance. It is an important source of food for many wildlife species. For an oak, it grows fast and bears acorns in 20 years. Due to thin bark, the tree has low fire resistance. Use as a shade tree or street tree. As with all oaks, it is a high-value wildlife plant.

Insects, Diseases, or Other Plant Problems:  Leaf spots, anthracnose, canker, mildew, rust, rots, galls, and numerous insect problems have been reported. This tree is highly susceptible to oak wilt.

See this plant in the following landscape:
Cultivars / Varieties:
Tags:
#sun#deciduous#fall color#shade tree#poisonous#full sun#partial shade#heat tolerant#drought tolerant#edible plant#wildlife plant#partial sun#native tree#tree#fall interest#street tree#small mammals#food source#low flammability#NC native#black bears#wild turkeys#deer resistant#blue jays#small and large mammals#fire resistant#edible fruits#Braham Arboretum#fantz#larval host plant#food source fall#food source herbage#bird friendly#food source hard-mast fruit#dry soils tolerant#food source hard mast fruit#fall color red#butterfly friendly#butterfly larvae#larval host tree#problem for horses#audubon
 
Cultivars / Varieties:
Tags:
#sun#deciduous#fall color#shade tree#poisonous#full sun#partial shade#heat tolerant#drought tolerant#edible plant#wildlife plant#partial sun#native tree#tree#fall interest#street tree#small mammals#food source#low flammability#NC native#black bears#wild turkeys#deer resistant#blue jays#small and large mammals#fire resistant#edible fruits#Braham Arboretum#fantz#larval host plant#food source fall#food source herbage#bird friendly#food source hard-mast fruit#dry soils tolerant#food source hard mast fruit#fall color red#butterfly friendly#butterfly larvae#larval host tree#problem for horses#audubon
  • Attributes:
    Genus:
    Quercus
    Species:
    coccinea
    Family:
    Fagaceae
    Uses (Ethnobotany):
    Native Americans and pioneers used the acorns for food. Roasted acorns have been ground and used as a coffee substitute. The wood is used in construction for floors, etc.
    Life Cycle:
    Woody
    Recommended Propagation Strategy:
    Seed
    Country Or Region Of Origin:
    Northern Central & Eastern U.S.A
    Distribution:
    AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, GA, IL, IN, KY, MA, MD, ME, MI, MO, MS, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, PA, RI, SC, TN, VA, VT, WI, WV.
    Fire Risk Rating:
    high flammability
    Wildlife Value:
    The Scaret oak is a host plant for the Banded Hairstread, Edward's Hairstreak, Grey Hairstreak, White-M Hairstreak, Horace's Duskywing, and Juvenal's Duskywing butterflies.  Acorns are eaten by woodpeckers, blue jays, small mammals, wild turkey, white-tailed deer, and black bear.
    Play Value:
    Shade
    Wildlife Cover/Habitat
    Wildlife Food Source
    Wildlife Larval Host
    Wildlife Nesting
    Edibility:
    Acorns can be eaten once to tannins have been leached or boiled out.
    Dimensions:
    Height: 50 ft. 0 in. - 80 ft. 0 in.
    Width: 45 ft. 0 in. - 78 ft. 0 in.
  • Whole Plant Traits:
    Plant Type:
    Native Plant
    Poisonous
    Tree
    Woody Plant Leaf Characteristics:
    Deciduous
    Habit/Form:
    Ascending
    Open
    Pyramidal
    Rounded
    Growth Rate:
    Rapid
    Maintenance:
    Medium
    Texture:
    Medium
  • Cultural Conditions:
    Light:
    Full sun (6 or more hours of direct sunlight a day)
    Partial Shade (Direct sunlight only part of the day, 2-6 hours)
    Soil Texture:
    Clay
    Loam (Silt)
    Sand
    Soil pH:
    Acid (<6.0)
    Soil Drainage:
    Good Drainage
    Moist
    Occasionally Dry
    Available Space To Plant:
    24-60 feet
    NC Region:
    Coastal
    Mountains
    Piedmont
    USDA Plant Hardiness Zone:
    4a, 4b, 5b, 5a, 6b, 6a, 7b, 7a, 8a, 8b, 9b, 9a
  • Fruit:
    Fruit Color:
    Brown/Copper
    Display/Harvest Time:
    Fall
    Fruit Type:
    Nut
    Fruit Length:
    < 1 inch
    Fruit Description:
    1/2 to 1-inch long acorn occurs singly or in pairs and is half covered by a deep bowl-like cap. The exposed acorn often has concentric, circular rings. Bitter in taste and require 2 seasons to mature. It starts producing at age 20.
  • Flowers:
    Flower Color:
    Green
    Flower Inflorescence:
    Catkin
    Insignificant
    Flower Bloom Time:
    Spring
    Flower Description:
    Separate male and female flowers in non-showy catkins.
  • Leaves:
    Woody Plant Leaf Characteristics:
    Deciduous
    Leaf Color:
    Gold/Yellow
    Green
    Leaf Feel:
    Glossy
    Leaf Value To Gardener:
    Showy
    Deciduous Leaf Fall Color:
    Red/Burgundy
    Leaf Type:
    Simple
    Leaf Arrangement:
    Alternate
    Leaf Shape:
    Elliptical
    Ovate
    Leaf Margin:
    Lobed
    Hairs Present:
    No
    Leaf Length:
    3-6 inches
    Leaf Width:
    3-6 inches
    Leaf Description:
    The leaves are 4-7 inches long and 3-5 inches wide and are a lustrous dark green above and paler below. The deeply cut lobes are bristle-tipped with c-shaped deep sinuses and 7 pointed lobes. The fall color is scarlet, showy and occurs late.
  • Bark:
    Bark Color:
    Dark Brown
    Dark Gray
    Surface/Attachment:
    Ridges
    Bark Description:
    On young trees, the bark is gray-brown, with smooth streaks. Later becomes darker and develops irregular broad ridges and narrow furrows especially near the base. Often spotted with gray. The inner bark is reddish to orangish.
  • Stem:
    Stem Color:
    Brown/Copper
    Red/Burgundy
    Stem Is Aromatic:
    No
    Stem Bud Terminal:
    Cluster of terminal buds
    Stem Surface:
    Smooth (glabrous)
    Stem Description:
    Stems are red-brown with multiple terminal reddish-brown buds.
  • Landscape:
    Landscape Location:
    Lawn
    Meadow
    Naturalized Area
    Landscape Theme:
    Butterfly Garden
    Native Garden
    Design Feature:
    Shade Tree
    Specimen
    Street Tree
    Attracts:
    Butterflies
    Small Mammals
    Songbirds
    Resistance To Challenges:
    Black Walnut
    Deer
    Drought
    Dry Soil
    Heat
    Problems:
    Frequent Disease Problems
    Frequent Insect Problems
    Poisonous to Humans
    Problem for Horses
  • Poisonous to Humans:
    Poison Severity:
    Low
    Poison Symptoms:
    Abdominal pain, constipation then diarrhea (occasionally bloody), depression, frequent urination, discolored urine, jaundice; acorns can obstruct the digestive tract
    Poison Toxic Principle:
    Gallotannins, quercitrin, and quercitin.
    Causes Contact Dermatitis:
    No
    Poison Part:
    Leaves
    Seeds