- Common Name(s):
- Shortleaf pine
- Native Plants, Trees
The Pinus echinata has attractive reddish-brown bark in scaly plates on mature trees. As the tree ages, the flat scales reveal a yellowish color when removed.
It is an important timber tree in the deep South where it is harvested for a variety of purposes, including lumber, plywood and wood pulp (for paper). Oleoresins are extracted to make turpentine.
The formation of a deep taproot complicates transplanting from the wild.
Regions: Mountain, Piedmont, Coastal Plains
Seasons of Interest:
Bloom: Spring Fruit/Seed/Nut: Fall
Wildlife Value: The Shortleaf pine is moderately resistant to deer damage. It provides winter cover. It is also a host plant for the Eastern Pine Elfin butterfly and many moths. Squirrels, other small mammals, and birds eat the seeds.
Insects, Diseases, or Other Plant Problems: Healthy, well-maintained Shortleaf pine trees usually have few problems. Pine beetles and weevils are potential insect pests.
- 80-100 ft.
- In the spring, red to yellow, male and light green to red, female flowers mature on the Shortleaf pine. This tree produces both a pale purple male cone and a pale pink female cone.
- The Shortleaf Pine grows best in average, dry to medium, well-drained soils in full sun. It will tolerate some light shade. It will also tolerate a wide range of soils but prefers sandy loams.
- Pyramidal in youth; develops a small narrow crown with age; horizontal branches
- 30 ft.
- Growth Rate:
- The Shortleaf Pine has dark bluish-green needles (3-5" long) that appear in bundles of two. Cylindrical brown cones (1.5 to 2.5" long) are usually not produced until the tree reaches 20 years old. Attractive reddish-brown bark in scaly plates on mature trees.
NCCES plant id: 2091