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Winterberry Ilex aquifolium

Phonetic Spelling
EYE-leks a-kwee-FOH-lee-um
This plant has low severity poison characteristics.
See below
Description

English holly is an ornamental tree or tall hedge in the Aquifoliaceae family.  It has glossy green leaves and thorns.  It is effective as a specimen plant, grouped as a tall hedge or foundation planting.  It dislikes high temperatures and high humidity so use only in protected locations.  Protect from cold winter winds. You need to plant male and female plants to produce berries that provide color and fall interest.  It tolerates air pollution.  Prune in the winter as needed to maintain shape.  It likes partial shade especially in hot summers and will not tolerate poor drainage

Insects, Diseases, and Other Plant Problems: It can be challenging to grow in the south because it dislikes hot summers and cold winters. 

See this plant in the following landscape:
Cultivars / Varieties:
  • 'Aquifodina'
  • 'Argentea'
  • 'Britebush'
  • 'Crinkle Variegated'
  • 'Dapper'
  • 'Ferox Argentena'
  • 'Ivory'
  • 'Marginata'
  • 'Moonbeam'
  • 'Zelta's Elite'
'Aquifodina', 'Argentea', 'Britebush', 'Crinkle Variegated', 'Dapper', 'Ferox Argentena', 'Ivory', 'Marginata', 'Moonbeam', 'Zelta's Elite'
Tags:
#bees#fragrant#thorns#evergreen#fragrant flowers#specimen#wildlife plant#winter interest#fall interest#air pollution tolerant#berries#hedges#specialized bees#food source#spines#glossy leaves#foundation planting#pollinator plant#bird friendly#problem for cats#problem for dogs#problem for horses
 
Cultivars / Varieties:
  • 'Aquifodina'
  • 'Argentea'
  • 'Britebush'
  • 'Crinkle Variegated'
  • 'Dapper'
  • 'Ferox Argentena'
  • 'Ivory'
  • 'Marginata'
  • 'Moonbeam'
  • 'Zelta's Elite'
'Aquifodina', 'Argentea', 'Britebush', 'Crinkle Variegated', 'Dapper', 'Ferox Argentena', 'Ivory', 'Marginata', 'Moonbeam', 'Zelta's Elite'
Tags:
#bees#fragrant#thorns#evergreen#fragrant flowers#specimen#wildlife plant#winter interest#fall interest#air pollution tolerant#berries#hedges#specialized bees#food source#spines#glossy leaves#foundation planting#pollinator plant#bird friendly#problem for cats#problem for dogs#problem for horses
  • Attributes:
    Genus:
    Ilex
    Species:
    aquifolium
    Family:
    Aquifoliaceae
    Life Cycle:
    Woody
    Country Or Region Of Origin:
    Europe, northern Africa, western Asia
    Wildlife Value:
    Fruits are attractive to birds. Members of the genus Ilex support the following specialized bee: Colletes banksi.
    Dimensions:
    Height: 15 ft. 0 in. - 50 ft. 0 in.
    Width: 15 ft. 0 in. - 25 ft. 0 in.
  • Whole Plant Traits:
    Plant Type:
    Shrub
    Tree
    Woody Plant Leaf Characteristics:
    Broadleaf Evergreen
    Habit/Form:
    Dense
    Erect
    Pyramidal
    Growth Rate:
    Slow
    Maintenance:
    Low
    Texture:
    Coarse
    Appendage:
    Spines
  • Cultural Conditions:
    Light:
    Full sun (6 or more hours of direct sunlight a day)
    Partial Shade (Direct sunlight only part of the day, 2-6 hours)
    Soil Texture:
    High Organic Matter
    Loam (Silt)
    Sand
    Soil pH:
    Acid (<6.0)
    Soil Drainage:
    Good Drainage
    Available Space To Plant:
    12-24 feet
    24-60 feet
    NC Region:
    Coastal
    Mountains
    Piedmont
    USDA Plant Hardiness Zone:
    6b, 6a, 7b, 7a, 8b, 8a
  • Fruit:
    Fruit Color:
    Gold/Yellow
    Orange
    Red/Burgundy
    Fruit Value To Gardener:
    Showy
    Display/Harvest Time:
    Fall
    Winter
    Fruit Type:
    Berry
    Drupe
    Fruit Length:
    < 1 inch
    Fruit Width:
    < 1 inch
    Fruit Description:
    Red, yellow, or orange berries (drupes) 1/4 inch diameter that ripen in fall, persist into winter and are attractive to birds
  • Flowers:
    Flower Color:
    Green
    Insignificant
    White
    Flower Inflorescence:
    Insignificant
    Flower Value To Gardener:
    Fragrant
    Flower Bloom Time:
    Spring
    Flower Petals:
    4-5 petals/rays
    Flower Description:
    Insignificant greenish-white fragrant flowers. Need to plant male and female plants.
  • Leaves:
    Woody Plant Leaf Characteristics:
    Broadleaf Evergreen
    Leaf Color:
    Green
    Leaf Feel:
    Glossy
    Prickly
    Slippery
    Smooth
    Leaf Type:
    Simple
    Leaf Arrangement:
    Alternate
    Leaf Margin:
    Undulate
    Hairs Present:
    No
    Leaf Length:
    1-3 inches
    Leaf Width:
    1-3 inches
    Leaf Description:
    Dark green 1-3 in. alternate, simple, glossy, dark green wavy leaves with spines
  • Stem:
    Stem Is Aromatic:
    No
  • Landscape:
    Landscape Theme:
    Pollinator Garden
    Winter Garden
    Design Feature:
    Hedge
    Specimen
    Attracts:
    Bees
    Pollinators
    Songbirds
    Specialized Bees
    Resistance To Challenges:
    Pollution
    Problems:
    Problem for Cats
    Problem for Dogs
    Problem for Horses
    Spines/Thorns
  • Poisonous to Humans:
    Poison Severity:
    Low
    Poison Symptoms:
    Vomiting, diarrhea, and depression. Leaves and berries are low toxicity.
    Poison Toxic Principle:
    Saponins
    Causes Contact Dermatitis:
    No