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Marijuana Cannabis sativa

Other Common Name(s):

Previously known as:

  • Cannabis indica Lam
  • Cannabis ruderalis Janisch
Phonetic Spelling
KAN-nah-biss sa-TEE-vah
This plant has low severity poison characteristics.
See below
Description

Cannabis saliva was first classified in 1753 by Carl Linnaeus.  The word sativa translates to 'things that are cultivated'.  Hemp is a large, coarse annual plant in the Cannabaceae family, growing quickly to 6 to 12 feet tall.

A unisexual plant, male plants are typically found to grow taller than female plants, yet less robust.  Pollen is spread by the male plant before dying  This occurs before the female seed has ripened.  The flowers form on female plants, producing hundreds of seeds.  While most plants are either male or female, some are monoecious, having both male and female parts.  These plants can be sterile or fertile.  Pollination is by the wind. 

Cannabis sativa is commonly referred to as Marijuana and has been long been used in folk medicine.  It is used for treatment of pain, depression, insomnia, and loss of appetite are among the ailments that have been treated.   

Seeds from this plant are mainly used to make hemp seed oil and used for cooking, lamp fuel, and paint.  They are also edible both cooked or raw.  Highly nutritious oil can be obtained from the seeds.  The leaves are used in the preparation of soups.

It is also a source of textile fiber.  The stem tissues can be used to make bioplastics.

Parts of the plant are harvested depending on the purpose of intended use.  

The leaves are palmate, divided into 3 to 7 toothed leaflets.  The relatively sparse foliage allows air flow through the plant, making a more healthy plant that experiences fewer issues with fungus than other varieties.  The flowers are small and green, crowded on axillary clusters.  Male flowers have sepals and stamens.   Female flowers have two carpels enclosed by a perigonal bract which extends under the flower as support.    

It is used as a houseplant and a landscape plant in some parts of the country (Note: It is illegal to grow in North Carolina).  Use or production of marijuana in locations where it is illegal can lead to incarceration.  

Insects, Diseases, and Other Plant Problems:  Use of marijuana can be addictive, especially in young adults.  Similar to other drugs, marijuana can lead to acute alterations in dopamine release.  During withdrawal, extracellular dopamine levels are reduced.  Chronic use can cause changes in the components of the endogenous opioid system.  

See this plant in the following landscape:
Cultivars / Varieties:
Tags:
#herbaceous#illegal#acidic soils tolerant#alkaline soils tolerant#herbaceous annual#problem for cats#problem for dogs#problem for horses#shade intolerant#annual
 
Cultivars / Varieties:
Tags:
#herbaceous#illegal#acidic soils tolerant#alkaline soils tolerant#herbaceous annual#problem for cats#problem for dogs#problem for horses#shade intolerant#annual
  • Attributes:
    Genus:
    Cannabis
    Species:
    sativa
    Family:
    Cannabaceae
    Uses (Ethnobotany):
    Industrial fiber, seed oil, food and recreation
    Life Cycle:
    Annual
    Recommended Propagation Strategy:
    Seed
    Country Or Region Of Origin:
    South Eastern European Russia to North West China
    Play Value:
    Buffer
    Easy to Grow
    Edible fruit
    Edibility:
    The leaves, oils and seed are edible.
    Dimensions:
    Height: 6 ft. 0 in. - 12 ft. 0 in.
    Width: 1 ft. 0 in. - 3 ft. 0 in.
  • Whole Plant Traits:
    Plant Type:
    Annual
    Poisonous
    Habit/Form:
    Erect
    Growth Rate:
    Rapid
    Maintenance:
    High
    Texture:
    Coarse
  • Cultural Conditions:
    Light:
    Full sun (6 or more hours of direct sunlight a day)
    Soil Texture:
    Clay
    Loam (Silt)
    Sand
    Soil pH:
    Acid (<6.0)
    Neutral (6.0-8.0)
    Soil Drainage:
    Moist
    Available Space To Plant:
    12 inches-3 feet
    3 feet-6 feet
    6-feet-12 feet
    USDA Plant Hardiness Zone:
    8b, 8a, 9b, 9a, 10b, 10a, 11b, 11a
  • Fruit:
    Fruit Type:
    Achene
  • Flowers:
    Flower Color:
    Green
    Flower Inflorescence:
    Panicle
    Raceme
    Flower Bloom Time:
    Summer
    Flower Shape:
    Irregular
    Flower Size:
    < 1 inch
    Flower Description:
    The flowers are small and green, crowded on axillary clusters.
  • Leaves:
    Leaf Color:
    Green
    Leaf Type:
    Compound (Pinnately , Bipinnately, Palmately)
    Simple
    Leaf Arrangement:
    Alternate
    Opposite
    Leaf Shape:
    Lanceolate
    Leaf Margin:
    Dentate
    Serrate
    Hairs Present:
    No
    Leaf Length:
    3-6 inches
    Leaf Width:
    1-3 inches
    Leaf Description:
    Opposite below and alternate toward top, long-stalked, palmately divided into 3-7 toothed leaflets
  • Stem:
    Stem Is Aromatic:
    No
  • Landscape:
    Landscape Location:
    Meadow
    Landscape Theme:
    Edible Garden
    Design Feature:
    Barrier
    Border
    Hedge
    Mass Planting
    Screen/Privacy
    Problems:
    Problem for Cats
    Problem for Dogs
    Problem for Horses
  • Poisonous to Humans:
    Poison Severity:
    Low
    Poison Symptoms:
    TOXIC ONLY IF LARGE QUANTITIES EATEN. Toxicity greatest in flower stalks. Exhilaration, hallucinations, delusions, blurred vision, poor coordination, stupor, and coma, prolonged depression, vomiting, hypersalivation, dilated pupils, low blood pressure, low body temperature, seizure, death (rare)
    Poison Toxic Principle:
    Delta-9-THC (tetrahydrocannabinol)
    Causes Contact Dermatitis:
    No
    Poison Part:
    Bark
    Flowers
    Fruits
    Leaves
    Roots
    Seeds
    Stems